John Philip Falter (1910 - 1982)
John Philip Falter is best known for his Illustrations for the Saturday Evening Post Covers and images of frontier life.
Grandma (Anna Robertson) Moses (1860 - 1961)
Grandma Moses is a self taught or primative artist. Born in Greenwich, New York in 1860, Anna Robertson was best known by her friends and family as Grandma Moses. She did not begin seriously painting until she was well into her 70’s, prior to which her work consisted of embroidered compositions. Grandma Moses painted mostly scenes depicting her rural life in New England. Her first painting Fireboard, circa 1918, currently resides at the Bennington Museum in Bennington, Vermont.
Grandma Moses’ popularity surged in the 1950’s with sell out exhibitions and numerous awards and commendations all over the world. In the 2001 publication ‘Grandma Moses in the Twenty-First Century’, art historian Judith Stein noted Grandma Moses as “A cultural icon, the spry, productive nonagenarian was continually cited as an inspiration for housewives, widows and retirees. Her images of America’s rural past were transferred to curtains, dresses, cookie jars, and dinner ware, and used to pitch cigarettes, cameras, lipstick and instant coffee.”
She was loved and respected by all. A U.S. commemorative stamp was even issued in her honor in 1969 and friend and fellow artist Norman Rockwell depicted her on the far left edge of his painting ‘Christmas Homecoming’. Shortly before Grandma Moses’ death at the age of 101, as an homage to her, the character Granny on the popular 1960s rural comedy television series ‘The Beverly Hillbillies’ was named Daisy Moses.
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Anselm Kiefer (1945 - )
Joan Mitchell (1926 - 1992)
Joan Mitchell was born in Chicago in 1925. She was an important member of the American Abstract expressionist movement. She was a pioneer for women artists working at the time along with Lee Krasner, Grace Hartigan, and Helen Frankenthaler and enjoyed critical acclaim.
She studied at Smith College in Massachusetts and The Art Institute of Chicago. She received a $2,000 travel fellowship that allowed her to study in Paris and Provence in 1948-49. Landscapes were a favorite influence on her subject matter. She painted on unprimed canvas with expressive gestural,brushstrokes. She has described a painting as, “an organism that turns in space”.
After moving to Paris in 1959, she moved away from the bright colors of her earlier compositions, instead using more sombre hues. Her compositions also became more dense with central masses of color. Mitchell’s work is included in many museum collections including Museum of Modern Art, New York; Whitney Museum of American Art, New York; Art Institute of Chicago; Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Washington, D.C.; Tate Gallery, London; and the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art.
To view a video about Joan Mitchell, click here.
Manolo Valdes (1942 -)
Spanish artist Manolo Valdes. Born in 1942 Artist Manolo Valdes 1957 Entered the Ecole des Beaux-Arts San Carlos of Valencia, Spain.Valdes left in 1958 to devote his life to painting. 1964 Valdes formed the group Equipo Cranica, which was influenced by American and British Pop Art.
Manolo Valdés is one of the few contemporary artists to successfully master the disciplines of drawing, painting, sculpture and print making. His work is found in public collections worldwide, including the Peggy Guggenheim Collection in Venice, Italy; Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York; Modern Museet Art in Stockholm, Sweden; Musée National d’Art Moderne in Paris, France; Museo Nacional Centre de Arte Reina Sofía in Madrid, Spain; and The Museum of Modern Art, New York, New York.
Max Ernst (1891 - 1976)
Max Ernst was a German artist—in painting, sculpture and collage—who was a key figure in the Dadaist and Surrealist art movements. He was born on April 2, 1891 in a small Rhineland town called Bruhl, outside Cologne. In 1922 Ernst moved to Paris, where, two years later, he became a founding member of the Surrealists, a group of artists and writers whose work grew out of fantasies evoked from the unconscious. After 1934 Ernst increasingly focused on sculpture.
At the outbreak of World War II, Ernst moved to the United States, where he joined his third wife, the collector and gallery owner Peggy Guggenheim. After the war ended, he divorced Peggy and married artist Dorothea Tanning. The built a house in Arizona and Ernst found inspiration is the setting. He created a wonderful series of Arizona’s mountains. He did eventually return to Europe and continued to create art. He was always experiment and reinventing his work.
Paul Cezanne (1839 - 1906)
Paul Cezanne was born on January 19, 1839 in Aix-en-Provence in France. In 1852, he studied at the Collège Bourbon, where he met and befriended writer Émile Zola. He went on to study painting and drawing at the École des Beaux-Arts (School of Design) in Aix in 1856. He used thick brush strokes to give his early works a sculptural quality. He soon met the Impressionists and exhibited his work to horrible reviews, after which he stopped exhibiting for thirteen years.
Still lifes, landscapes, portraits, and bathers were his preferred subjects. Paul Cezanne’s paintings underwent continual adjustment; many were reworked and he never really considered them finished.
Paul Cezanne was one of the most influential artists in the history of twentieth-century painting and he influenced generations of artists that came after him in art history.
Juan Gris (1887 - 1927)
Juan Gris born in Madrid. He studied mechanical drawing and contributed drawings to local publications. He then went on to study painting with the academic artist José Maria Carbonero.
In 1906 he moved to Paris. He was only 19 years old. There he became friends with artists Henri Matisse, Georges Braque, Fernand Léger and Amedeo Modigliani. He also became friends with Picasso and considered him his teacher. Gertrude Stein once said that Juan Gris “was the one person that Picasso would have willingly wiped off the map.” By 1912 Gris had created his own personal Cubist style. Unlike Picasso and Braque, whose Cubist works were monochromatic, Gris painted with bright harmonious colors in daring, novel combinations in the manner of his friend Matisse.
Gris articulated most of his aesthetic theories during 1924 and 1925. Important exhibitions of his work took place at the Galerie Simon in Paris and the Galerie Flechtheim in Berlin in 1923, and at the Galerie Flechtheim in Dusseldorf in 1925.
Auguste Herbin (1882 - 1960)
Auguste Herbin was born in 1882 in Quievy, Nord, France. Early in his career, he joined the Impressionists and then the Fauves. His studio was next to Braque’s and Picasso’s. This was a wonderful introduction to Cubism and he began to experiment with the style. In 1917, he evolved again to an abstract style before discovering Constructivism. His work was exhibited in the same room as that of Jean Metzinger, Albert Gleizes and Fernand Léger in the Salon des Indépendants of 1910, and in 1912 he participated in the influential Section d’Or exhibition. By 1922, he began to paint figures.
Auguste Herbin is best know for his pure geometrical shapes and bright colors of his later abstract works. He has had tremendous influence on many younger abstract painters.
Paul Gauguin (1848 - 1903)
Karl Schmidt-Rottluff (1884 - 1976)
Karl Schmidt-Rottluff was born in 1884 in Germany. His early creative output was as part of a group of German architecture students who exhibited under the name Die Brucke or The Bridge. The group wanted to “bridge” their modernist, avant-garde style with traditional movements from the past. Other members of The Bridge included Fritz Bleyl, Erich Heckel and Ernst Ludwig Kirchner. Work such as this contributed to the acceptance of 20th Century modernist art movements. The group stayed together until around 1913.
In the fall of 1911, Karl Schmidt-Rottluff moved to Berlin . In 1912, he had his first solo exhibition in Hamburg. During World War I Schmidt-Rottluff volunteered for service, and created wood sculpture in his spare time. His work during this time reflect the terrors of war that he was exposed to. In 1937, over six hundred of his paintings were seized by the Nazis and exhibited as “degenerate art”.
After the war, Karl Schmidt-Rottluff worked as a professor at the Hochschule der Bildenden Künste in West Berlin, where he had an important influence on a new generation of artists. He went on to found the Brucke Museum in Berlin with an endowment.
He died in Berlin in 1976.
Georges Seurat (1859 - 1891)
Georges Seurat was born on December 2, 1859, in Paris. In 1878, he studied at Ecole des Beaux-Arts. He became very interested in scientific theories about color perception and studied Principles of Harmony and Contrast of Colors. This knowledge would play in an important role in his development of the style called Pointillism, which broke down colors into their constituent hues and applying them side by side on canvas.
The first pointillism painting he did that fused design and color into a composition was “Sunday Afternoon on the Island of the Grande Jatte”. This has become one of his most famous works and resides in the collection of the Chicago Art Institute. Throughout the late 1880s, he worked outdoors painting landscapes inspired by Impressionism subject matter. Seurat late painted depictions of upper-class Parisian life, circuses and cabarets.
George Seurat died in 1891 in Paris, after suffering with pneumonia or meningitis. The contents of Seurat’s studio cataloged and offered to the Louvre, but they refused. A group of followers continued his style of work including Camille Pissarro and Paul Signac.
Henri Fantin-Latour (1836 - 1904)
Henri Fantin-Latour was a well known painter and lithographer. His work was done in the traditional style of the Old Masters.
In 1841 he moved to Paris and began to study art under his father, Théodore Fantin-Latour. He later studied at Ecole des Beaux Arts and then studied under the artist Gustave Courbet. He worked for a time copying Old Master paintings at the Louvre. There he became acquaintance of Edgar Degas, Edouard Manet and Berthe Morisot. He became close friends with James McNeill Whistler and with Whistler and Alphonse Legros, formed the Société des Trois.
Fantin-Latour made several trips to London. He exhibited his work at the Royal Academy in London and became noticed by collectors for still lifes and mythological scenes. He also received many portrait commissions. Fantin-Latour received the critical acclaim for a series of group portraits of the most renowned artists, writers, and musicians of his day.
John Frost (1890 - 1937)
John Duncan Fergusson (1874 - 1961)
Leon Kossoff (1926 -)
Charles Wilbert White (1918 - 1979)
William J. McCloskey (1859 - 1941)
Wassily Kandinsky (1866 - 1944)
Gilbert C. Stuart (1755 - 1828)
Peter Saul (1934 - )
Peter Saul was born in California in 1934. He studied art at the California School of Fine Arts and at Washington University in St. Louis. In 1958, he first introduced cartoon characters and super heros such as Donald Duck and Superman into his paintings.
His style can be tied with several art movements including Pop Art, Surrealism,and Expressionism, but it does not fit neatly into any of those categories. His work is often a commentary on aspects of contemporary life, art, history and politics. His paintings have become recognizable for the Day-Glo colors and exaggerated forms.
“I have tried very hard to be a “crazy artist,” in painting pictures, since the late 1950’s when I first got the idea. I love doing it. Being against the majority of intelligent viewers and on the side of the stupid, the obvious and the insolent really gives me a thrill and makes me laugh too.” - Peter Saul
In 2010, he was elected to the American Academy of Art and Letters. Peter Saul’s work can be found in several museums around the world including The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY; The Art Institute, Chicago, IL; The Los Angeles County Museum, Los Angeles, CA; the Musee des Beaux-Arts, Mons, Belgium; Musee National d’Art Moderne, Paris, France; and the Moderna Museet, Stockholm, Sweden.
Henri Julian Rousseau (1844 - 1910)
Odilon Redon (1840 - 1916)
Odilon Redon was born in Bordeaux, France in 1840. He gained a lot of inspiration from the estate he grew up on, which provided subjects from nature and a catalyst for fantasy. Other influences include works by Rembrandt, Corot, and especially to Delacroix.
After serving in the Franco-Prussian War, he settled in Paris and began to focus on his artistic development. He created many highly original charcoal drawings, he called his Noirs. He also created many lithographs during the 1880s and 1890s. Redon’s reputation until 1890 was based solely on his work in black and white, but he had been using color in landscape studies that were not exhibited at this point. These works often repeated or developed the subjects of the Noirs.
In 1899 Redon exhibited works with Nabis artists. These works influenced young painters at the time such as Bonnard and Vuillard. A large selection of his works was shown at the Salon d’Automne in 1904. Odilon Redon’s work contributed to the advent of Fauvism.
Redon died on July 6, 1916. In 2005 the Museum of Modern Art launched an exhibition entitled “Beyond The Visible”, a comprehensive overview of Redon’s work showcasing more than 100 paintings, drawings, prints and books.
Julian Schnabel (1951 - )
Julian Schnabel was born October 26, 1951 in Brooklyn, New York. His family moved to Brownville, Texas when he was very young. He came from a Jewish background. His mother was president of the Brooklyn chapter of Hadassah in the late 1940’s and he grew up wanting to become an artist. He received his BFA at the University of Houston and also studied at the Whitney Museum of American Art in New York. Julian Schnabel became known for his large ‘Plate Paintings’ consisting of broken ceramic pieces in the early 80’s.
Schnabel was a leader in the Neo-expressionism movement, modern art portraying recognizable objects, usually abstract and vivid with colors. Known for his bold statements and boisterous personality, he claimed to be ‘The closest thing to Picasso…’, and was heavily criticized by the public in the mid 1980’s. Although he has always considered himself a painter he is much better known for his writing and directing of films.
Julian Schnabel just recently reemerged in the art world in 2013 and is currently exhibiting in the United States. He lives in New York and has studios on Long Island and in New York City.
William McGregor Paxton (1869 - 1941)
Marianne Werefkin (1860 - 1938)
Max Weber (1881 - 1961)
Alfons Walde (1891 - 1958)
Victor Manuel (1897 - 1969)
George Tooker (1920 - 2011)
Vitaly Tikhov (1876 - 1939)
Yves Tanguy ((1900 - 1955)
Stanley Spencer (1881 - 1959)
William Sonntag (1822 - 1900)
Charles Sheeler (1883 - 1965)
Ben Shahn (1898 - 1969)
Mariano Rodriguez (1912 - 1990)
Gerhard Richter (1932 -)
Milton Resnick (1917 - 2004)
Ad Reinhardt (1913 - 1967)
Robert Reid ()
Paula Rego (1935 -)
Richard Pousette-Dart (1916 - 1992)
Fairfield Porter (1907 - 1975)
Elizabeth Peyton (1965 -)
Richard Pettibone (1938 -)
Samuel Peploe (1871 - 1935)
Julian Onderdonk (1882 - 1922)
Albert Oehlen (1954 -)
Roy Nuse (1885 - 1975)
Alfred Maurer (1868 - 1932)
Roberto Antonio Matta (1911 - 2002)
Alfredo Ramos Martinez (1871 - 1946)
Hailed by some as the Father of Mexican Modern Art, Alfredo Ramos Martinez has sadly been overlooked in recent years. However, this does not diminish Martinez’s legacy. He inspired the artists of southern California and his own students with his love of his native country and inventive style.
From a young age, Martinez was talented. Born in Monterrey, Mexico in 1871, his family was very supportive of his interest in art. At nine he painted a portrait of the Governor of Monterrey that was eventually sent to an exhibition in San Antoino, Texas. Impressed by his work, Martinez won first prize and the ability to attend Academia Nacional de Bellas Artes in Mexico City.
He did not enjoy his time in school and would often wander away to observed everyday life in Mexico City. The sunny plazas and narrow streets became a sanctuary and muse for sketches and watercolors.
Phoebe Apperson Hearst, mother of William Randolph Hearst, paid an official visit to Mexico City in 1899. The Mexican President requested that Martinez create hand printed menus for an official dinner. Phoebe Hearst was so impressed that she asked to meet Alfredo Ramos Martinez and offered to pay a monthly stipend for him to study in Paris.
While in Paris, he developed a post-Impressionist style. He wanted to express emotional depth and go beyond simply distorting subjects. He would run out of sketch paper, but one day his landlord gave him newspaper. The use of newspaper gave his art a new kind of texture and quickly became a favorite medium.
The Mexican Revolution prompted Martinez to return to Mexico. Thanks to a teaching post, he was able to found the Open Air School Project, which encouraged painting outside and breaking away from European style and teaching methods. Martinez encouraged his students to paint Mexican subjects. Muralist David Alfaro Siquieros was among his students.
In 1929, Martinez moved to Los Angeles for the wellbeing of his infant daughter, who suffered from a bone disease. Martinez introduced California to Mexican iconography and mural works. Celebrities such as designer Edith Head, and Alfred Hitchcock commissioned murals from him. Alfredo Ramos Martinez is a celebrated Mexican artist that inspired a generation of muralists and artists.
Dale William Nichols (1904 - 1995)
Gabriele Munter (1877 - 1962)
Henry Moret (1856 - 1913)
Alfred Jacob Miller (1810 - 1874)
Beatrice Milhazes (1960 -)
Mark Bradford (1961 -)
Mario Carreno (1913 - 1999)
John Marin (1870 - 1953)
Alberto Magnelli (1888 - 1971)
Auguste Macke (1887 - 1914)
James E.H. Macdonald (1873 - 1932)
Andre Lhote (1885 - 1962)
Jack Levine (1915 - 2010)
Marie Laurencin (1885 - 1956)
Wifredo Lam (1902 - 1982)
Walt Francis Kuhn (1916 -)
Lee Lenore Krasner (1908 - 1984)
John Kacere (1920 - 1999)
Javacheff Christo (1395 -)
Alexander Young (A.Y.) Jackson (1882 - 1974)
Jack Wilkinson Smith (1873 - 1949)
Philip Guston (1913 - 1980)
Georges Rouault (1871 - 1958)
Born in Paris in 1871, George Rouault was first introduced to art by his grandfather, who collected Courbet. As a teenager, Rouault apprenticed as a glass painter. This experience along with his fascination with the medieval church guided his style towards heavy lines and piercing color, evocative of stained glass.
Throughout his career, Rouault developed his deeply personal style. The flat, fractured subjects evoke religious iconography. Like Degas and Toulouse-Lautrec before him, Rouault became fascinated by performers. Clowns held special importance. George Rouault felt that they suffered so that the audience could forget their own troubles. He found tragedy within the comedy. This idea inspired Georges Rouault to paint clowns as a modern day Christ figure.
Rouault later found this kind of nobility in other subjects such as prostitutes and day laborers. He was interested in exploring this idea of suffering for the sake of someone else. Each subject was weary, vulnerable, and deeply human. Coupled with his unique style, these works give the impression that they belong in allegorical cathedral art.
Vollard, an esteemed art dealer and agent, became interested in George Rouault and purchased his entire studio in 1913. Vollard became Rouault’s exclusive agent and provided for finical security. With this new stability, George Rouault was able to further explore new methods and produce more consistent work.
George Rouault’s works overall can be identified by their thoughtfulness and almost private nature. Religious, but never preaching or judgmental, Rouault presents cycles of hardships and salvations.
John Folinsbee (1892 - 1972)
Folinsbee is chiefly recognized as a leading member among the New Hope School of American Impressionism. New Hope was part of Pennsylvania Impressionism, an offshoot of American Impressionism. Pennsylvania Impressionism was one of the major voices of the American art community during the 1910s and 1920s. These artists were praised for their more realistic and subtle style. Thomas Eakins was among the leaders and major sources of inspiration.
The New Hope artists were led by Edward Redfield who encouraged independent voices and ideas within his group. Thanks to his support, Folinsbee thrived and cultivated his personal style.
While Folinsbee was known for his light color palette, he developed a different approach after a trip to France in 1926. Exposure to European Impressionism inspired him and he began employing darker colors and new methods. The thick brushstrokes convey both the passion of the artist and the rich hillsides and seascapes he captured.
Folinsbee painted for the love of art, not for the desire of recognition. He followed his own path throughout his career, unconcerned with changing trends. He developed a an adaptive style on his own terms.
George Grosz (1893 - 1959)
George Grosz was a German artist caught in the between war and the rise of the Nazi party. By using satire, Grosz expressed his politics and general pessimism towards modern society. Characters are twisted exaggerations and each scene is rich in iniquity.
While he is known now for his deeply political works, Grosz was not always political. Born to a lower middle class family in a small town in Pomerania, Grosz could often be found reading trashy novels, satire magazines rich in caricatures, and other escapist works. These would become the foundation of his style. Melodramatic gestures conveying simple truths, sensationalism, and realism fused together. Using this as his base, George Grosz created a unique and recognizable style.
In 1920, Grosz joined Hausmann and Heartfield in organizing an international Dada exhibition. The Dada-Messe exposed Berlin to the movement. This faire discredited the idea that art was patriotic and showed a number of procommunist and nihilist works.
As the Nazi regime came to power, America was a dream of escape. Before Hitler secured his dictatorship, Grosz fled and became an American citizen in 1933. Grosz died upon his return to Berlin in 1959.
Louis Marcoussis (1878 - 1941)
Sanford Robinson Gifford (1823 - 1880)
Henry Farny (1847 - 1916)
Henry Farny was born in 1847 in Alsace, France. His family fled to America in 1853 as political refugees. They moved to Warren, Pennsylvania where Farny first met Native Americans. This sparked a lifelong fascination with their people and culture.
Henry Farny was among the first artists to make a career of painting Plains Indians. Unlike some, Farny tended to favor a romantic realism rather than sensationalism or straight romance.
Farny made his way up the river and to Bismarck, North Dakota. Sitting Bull had surrendered himself to the American military and Farny had hoped to meet the famed leader and learn more about the Ghost Dance movement. During his visit, Henry Farny was able to sketch what he saw of the Ghost Dance and the Sioux Nation.
During Farny’s other trips out west, he would collect Native American artifacts. His collection grew so large and diverse that he was able to paint any subject he wanted without needing to step outside his studio. However, he continued to travel and met Native Americans.
While Farny presented his subjects in a slightly nostalgic light, he avoided the drama that other painters of this genre are known for. His light is dynamic, poses are natural, and there is a sense of documentary detail. Henry Farny truly wished to capture these cultures, down to the minor details.
William Haseltine (1835 - 1900)
Philip Leslie Hale (1865 - 1931)
Michael Goldberg (1924 - 2007)
Leon Shulman Gaspard (1882 - 1964)
Jared French (1905 - 1987)
Helen Frankenthaler (1928 - 2011)
Leonard Tsuguharu Foujita (1886 - 1968)
Dana Schutz (1976 -)
Born in Livonia, Michigan in 1976, Dana Schutz began to seriously paint at age 15. She sold her first painting when she was 16. She received a BFA degree at the Cleveland Institute of Art and later an MFA from Columbia in 2002. In that same year, Schutz gained notoriety with her series of paintings featuring Frank.
“Frank from Observation” was an exploration of the relationship between artist and subject. In this series, Frank is an unwilling subject and often has a look of bewilderment in his eyes. The artist is an ambiguous character in this series. The connection and fascination with Frank is left to the viewer.
Dana Schutz kept coming up with new and unusual subjects and explored hypothetical questions. In 2003, Schutz created the “Self Eaters and the People who Love Them.” Series. In “Self Eaters,” Schutz envisioned a clan of auto-cannibals. In other shows, she would go on to explore what would happen if subjects were torn out of the painting, what is outside the realm of paintings, and other such topics that provoke not only the fourth wall, but the sensibilities of the viewer. Dana Schutz revels the awkward.
All these works are characters in their own right, offering to tell a story like no other to the viewer. Dana Schutz is a painter that breaks down that barrier. From the types of characters to the topics she chooses to base her work upon, Schutz gleefully flirts with limits. Her macabre sense of humor provides for a new insight in modern living.
Carlos Enriquez (1900 - 1957)
Asher Durand (1796 - 1886)
Asher B. Durand was born in Jefferson, New Jersey in 1796. He produced stunning and iconic American landscapes of the 19th century. However, he did not set out to become a landscape artist. In 1812 apprenticed for an engraver and continued in that trade becoming very well known for his skill. He gained some renown after one of his engravings was included in John Trumbull’s Declaration of Independence.
A trip to the Adirondacks with fellow artist Thomas Cole inspired Asher Durand to paint landscapes. He started to take annual trips to different mountain ranges and would return with sketchbooks filled with the basis for many of his oil paintings. After exploring the Catskills and the White Mountains, Durand went to Europe and studied classic methods and the old masters. Upon his return, he focused on depicting New England and the Hudson River with Romantic flare and intricate detail.
He founded the National Academy in 1826. This was the first American institute that was by artists and for artists. Education and equality were core values. The institute also provided a support system for emerging artists and created a new way of presenting art to the public. From 1845 to 1861, Durand served as its second president. The National Academy helped support Durand until the end of his career.
Asher Brown Durand is today referred to as The Father of American Landscape Painting and his work is included in many prestigious public and private collections of works from the Hudson River School.
Leon De Smet (1881 - 1966)
Leon De Smet was born in Belgium in 1881. He received training at the Academy Des Beaux Arts. In 1914, when the First World War started, De Smet moved to Great Britain. There he became a successful portrait painter and really began to build his reputation as an artist. After the war, when he returned home, he was given many exhibitions of his work.
De Smet joined the expressionist group in Laethem for a short time, but always painted in an impressionistic and Pointillist style. Subjects he enjoyed painting were landscapes, still life and figures. He is known for his characteristic build up of a composition using rapid, short brushstrokes. He used undertone colors to maintaining balance. At the age of 72, he had a solo exhibition at the prestigious Museum of Fine Arts in Ghent.
In 1926 Leon moved to Devrle where he died in 1966.
Marlene Dumas (1953 - 1997)
Peter Doig (1959 -)
Otto Dix (1891 - 1969)
Robert Delaunay (1885 - 1941)
Robert Cottingham (1935 - )
Jean-Baptiste Corot (1796 - 1875)
John Singleton Copley (1738 - 1815)
Leonora Carrington (1917 - 2011)
Leonora Carrington was born in 1917 to a British industrialist and an Irish mother. As a girl, she was fascinated with the fantastic. Her Irish nanny regaled her with tales of Gaelic heroes and fairy tale creatures. School proved to be unsatisfying – she was expelled several times.
Carrington was a Surrealist writer, sculptor, and painter whose works were richly saturated in mythology, alchemy, and the occult. Animals were a major element in her works. Humans become animals and animals bend and transform into magical beings. In 1937, Carrington met Max Ernst, who she considered her greatest teacher of Surrealism.
The Surrealist movement sought to explore the subconscious mind through poetry and art. Tradition breaking Dadaists, Karl Marx, and Freud’s dream symbolism all served as initial inspiration. The movement began in the late 1910s. Artists did not adopt the ideals of Surrealism until later. The first of these Surrealist artists such as Joan Miró and Man Ray, all found ways to translate the automaticism of Surrealism in their own works. This created the distinct style that we recognize today. Despite the lack of respect held for women Surrealists, Ernst encouraged Leonora Carrington’s work and introduced her to fellow artists such as Picasso and Dali. Ernst left his wife for Carrington and the two lived together for some time.
World War II scattered the Surrealists. Ernst was imprisoned in an internment camp and Carrington escaped to Spain, where she suffered from a break down and was admitted into a mental institution. She found passage out of Europe by briefly wedding Mexican writer, Renato Leduc. Carrington found her home in Mexico, once dubbed as “surrealist country,” Carrington met other like-minded artists and was absorbed in Mexico’s rich culture and love for colorful and at times macabre masks and costumes. She became a Mexican citizen and lived in Mexico City for the rest of her life.
Leonora Carrington blended multiple influences into her captivating dreamscapes and inventive creatures. Intriguing and thoughtful, her works still fascinate. Carrington passed away in 2011, the last living connection to the original Surrealists.