Mane Katz (1894-1962)
Michel Delacroix (b.1933)
Michel Delacroix was born in 1933 in Paris. He began painting as a young boy just before the German Occupation of Paris. Delacroix studied at Ecole des Beaux Arts in Paris and spent a great deal of time walking the streets of Paris studying its details and charming character. As he was developing his skills as painter, he experimented with many different painting styles. Delacroix began painting works in the Naïf tradition, at 35 years old. Today, he is a master of the Naïf tradition. Naif is a defined today as “the art that is free of conventions”. He is known for his beautiful cityscapes of Paris from a simpler time.
Delacroix has received with numerous awards including the Grand Prix des Amateurs d’Art, Paris (1973). The Grand Pris de la Cote d’Azur, Cannes (1976) and the Premier Prix de Sept Collines, Rome (1976). Today his work included in hundreds public and private collections including the Fonds National d’Art Contemporain in Paris and the Musée International d’Art Naïf. Delacroix was named the Official Artist of the 1996 Centennial Olympic Games and the Official Artist for the 1995 Special Olympics World Games. He continues to exhibit abroad in Europe and Japan.
Jean Dubuffet (1901 - 1985)
Jean Dubuffeet was born in Le Havre, France in 1901. He studied painting in Paris at the Académie Julian in 1918 for six months before continuing his education independently. His pursuit of art stopped and started until 1942, when he decided to commit it as a career. At this time, his painted woman with strong bold colors in a primitive style.
In 1944 he got his first Paris show. Jean Dubuffet resisted authority from a very early age and by 1945, he had coined the term Art Brut (or “ugly art”), and in 1948 he founded a society to promote this type of work. He wanted to attack conformism and mainstream culture. In the early 1960s, he developed a radically new style of art, called Hourloupe, and would exhibit it for many important public commissions, but he is best known for the thick textured and gritty surfaces of his paintings from the 1940s and ‘50s.
Before his death in 1985, Dubuffet’s work was exhibited around the world. He rebelled against art, culture, and intellectualism, Dubuffet was instrumental in establishing a unique style of his own that was devoid of the traditional standards of its time. His primitive approach to art making, has wide appeal.
Mahmoud Said (1897 - 1964)
Mahmoud Said was born to an aristocratic Alexandrian family, which lived in Anfoushi district in Alexandria, near El-Moursi Abu’l-Abbas Mosque. His father, Mohammed Said Pasha, and Egypt’s Prime Minister, was a keen supporter of culture and arts. He was uncle of Queen Farida, King Farouk’s first wife. He graduated from the French School of Law in 1919. He worked as a lawyer, prosecutor, and then as judge in Mansouria, Alexandria and Cairo, rising to the office of Justice Councilor of the Alexandria Mixed Court. He resigned from legal work finally in 1947, to dedicate himself solely to his art.
Taught by the Italian artist, Emilha Fazotano de Foreno, a resident of Alexandria who had studied at the Florence Academy, Said quickly learned the classical methods of drawing faces, harmonization of colours and shading. He took further lessons by with another Florentine artist Artoro Zananeri, before leaving for Paris in 1920 for further study.
His great innovation was in adapting the techniques of Western painting to express an individual and national character. This is a dominant characteristic in his work from the late 1920s onwards, and that which sets him apart from other painters of the First Generation. During these years the National Egyptian Movement flourished as did the formation of an ‘Egyptian’ character for Egyptian art. A favorite subject in his paintings were women and girls. Said used the same model from Alexandria throughout his life, drawing and painting her in many guises- poor, bourgeois, and even aristocratic.
Mahmoud Said participated in international exhibitions in Venice, Madrid and Alexandria. He staged exhibitions in New York, Paris, Rome, Moscow, Alexandria and Cairo. He was admitted to the French Legion d’Honneur, winning a medal for Honorary Merit in 1951, and in 1960 was the first artist to be awarded the State Merit Award for Arts by Egyptian President Gamal Abdul-Nasser.
Andre Derain (1880 - 1954)
André Derain was born in 1880 in Chatou, France. He is a well known painter, sculptor, printmaker, illustrator and designer who was one of the principal Fauvists.
Derain studied painting in Paris at the Académie Carriere from 1898 to 1899. He developed his early style in association with Maurice de Vlaminck, whom he met in 1900, and with Henri Matisse, who had been Derain’s fellow student at the Académie Carriere. Together with these two painters, Derain was one of the major exponents of Fauvism from 1905 to 1908. Like the other artists who worked in this style, he painted landscapes and figure studies in brilliant, sometimes pure colours and used broken brushstrokes and impulsive lines to define his spontaneous compositions.
Derain broke with Fauvism in 1908, when he was temporarily influenced by the works of the Post-Impressionist painter Paul Cézanne. Derain worked for a few years in a stylized form of Cubism, but by the 1920s his paintings of nudes, still lifes, and portraits had become increasingly Neoclassical, and the spontaneity and impulsiveness that had distinguished his earlier work gradually disappeared. His art underwent virtually no change after the 1920s, though his more conservative style brought him financial success.
Derain had considerable ability as a decorator and created theatrical designs, notably for the Ballets Russes. He also produced numerous book illustrations, often in woodcut.
Morgan Weistling (b. 1964)
Morgan Weistling is well known for figurative paintings. With a realistic style, his subjects have a romantic quality of another era. He grew up in Southern California. He learned to draw from his father, while sitting on his lap as young as nineteen months old. His father was an artist himself and his mother also encouraged his creative path. He went on to study art at a small Los Angeles art school run by Fred Fixler . There Weistling learned to paint by studying how light falls on a subject.
He worked as an illustrator of movie posters, but Weistling realized he wanted to make a living as a fine artist. It was the right decision. He has been very successful with his work using a painterly style similar to Joaquin Sorolla and John Singer Sargent. Morgan’s studio is in his home. Once he has his subjects arranged as he wants them, he paints completely by free hand without using a drawing as a guide.
Morgan Weistling work is widely collected and he has been honored with numerous awards, including the Patron’s Choice Award from the Autry National Heritage Museum show several times.
Frederic Bridgman ((1847 - 1928))
Frederick Arthur Bridgman is well known as an Orientalist painter. His introduction to working as an artist was engraving at the American Banknote Company. He took art classes at night and had his first exhibited a painting at the Brooklyn Art Association in 1865.
In 1866, Bridgman, moved to France to study under Philadelphia artist Robert Wylie. He also earned an apprenticeship with the famous Orientalist painters, Jean-Leon Gérôme. He exhibited with the National Academy of Design in 1871. Bridgman made his first trip to North Africa in 1872, focusing his time in Algeria and Egypt. During this time he created over 300 drawings that would serve as a source for inspiration for his future paintings. Bridgman’s work is known for portraying the color, light and lifestyle of Arab and Berber people. Bridgman experimented with many of the different genres within the Orientalist style and traveled extensively throughout his career.
In 1888, he showed at the American Art Gallery in New York. Shortly after he was elected to the National Academy of Design, and in 1907 was made an officer of the Legion d’Honneur. With the beginning of WWI he retired to Lyons-la-Foret in Normandy. He died in 1928. Throughout his career, Frederic Bridgman won many awards for his art. Today his work can be found in the permanent collections of Corcoran Gallery of Art, Brooklyn Institute, Art Institute of Chicago, Academy of Art, Leningrad and the Liverpool Gallery
Selden Gile ((1877 - 1947))
Selden Connor Gile was born in Stow, Maine in 1877. He studied art at the California College of Arts and Crafts, but is primarily self-taught. Giles early style of painting was classical California landscape painters, but later his work became more influenced by the style of Impressionism-Fauvism. His subjects remained focused on California scenes.
During the 1920s, he joined with five other artists, who became known as the Society of Six. Selden Gile was one of the most talented within the group. They were active in the San Francisco Bay area and exhibited often at the Oakland Art Gallery. Gile would find inspiration for his paintings while hiking and sketching the hills near Oakland and Berkeley. Gile’s hosted other artists and creative people in his home and Gile’s hospitality was legendary.
Gile died in Marin County in 1947. He was a member of the Marin County Art Association and Oakland Art League. Today, his work can be found in the collections of the Monterey Peninsula Museum, Oakland Museum, Fleischer Museum as well as many prominent private art collections.
Henri Manguin ((1874 - 1949))
Henri-Charles Manguin was born in Paris in 1874. At 15 years old, he decided to quit school and devote himself to painting. He moved to Montmartre and became a student in the studio of Gustave Moreau. He befriends with Marquet, Puy and Matisse, frequent Rouault, Valtat and Camoin.
Manguin’s work receives its first exposure with the Gallery Berthe Weil. In 1902, he participated in the Salon des Independents and continues to show there for the next 10 years.
It was in 1904 that he fell in love with Saint-Tropez and it’s light and beauty of the vegetation. Henri Manguin rents “la villa Demière” in the summer of 1905 and he paints many pieces that reflect his happiness in a highly colorful and expressive paintings.
Also that year, he participated in the “Salon d’Automne” in the “cage aux fauves,” where he introduced five paintings. The “Salon d’Automne” of 1909, was presented by Manguin and hailed by the critics. He also exhibited abroad such as the Russia international exhibition, the Venice Biennale and United States. His life is made of more or less stay long in France, but his heart remains in St. Tropez. Thus, he settled in Switzerland during the war, Brittany, Bordeaux, St Paul de Vence, Sanary and Avignon, where he took refuge in 1940.
He returned definitively to Saint-Tropez in 1949 and died there the same year. He has 75 years. He is regarded as one of the creators of fauve movement. Today his works are included in the collections of the Toulouse Lautrec Museum, Albi; Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg; Museum of the Annunciation, St. Tropez; Museum of Art, Winterthur; Musee des Augustins, Toulouse; University of Arizona Museum of Art; National Museum of Modern Art, Tokyo; Museo del Siglo XIX, Valencia
Gregory Packard (b. 1970)
Painting to me is about the personal connections we make with all of creation, a language that corresponds directly with how we see and interpret the world around us and within us.
The physical act of painting is an experience of passion, somewhat directed with control, skill and luck. Whether the scene is in front of me while painting from life or a recollection of the warm sun on my face, all experiences past and present contribute to the finished canvas.
In my experience painting is not a documenting of something but rather like capturing a glimpse, the pinpoint of a memory or the scent of a flower—it is experienced and gone quickly. Although at times a more literal rendering of nature is the best choice, more often I find a poetic or lyrical statement best describes how I feel about what I am seeing while painting. This simplification is the result of the enormity of creation. Beautiful nature in all its glory radiates so much more than just an exact image.
It is always my challenge to paint not only those qualities seen but those which awaken our emotional roots—our souls. If you are a melancholy person I want to put you at home by the weight of the sky in my landscape. If sanguine, I hope to open the heavens for you by simply painting the day’s first light.
It is this daily life we live, the nature of ourselves and our world, that so excites me when standing before my canvas—life’s vital creation that is my source of inspiration and humility.
• 1-Person Show • Bradford Brinton Memorial & Museum • Big Horn, WY • 2009
• 3-Person Show • Greenhouse Gallery • San Antonio, TX • Nov. 2010–2008
• 2-Person Show • Scottsdale Fine Art • Scottsdale, AZ • 2011, 2009–2008
• 2-Person Show • Long Gallery • Scottsdale, AZ • March, 2006
• 1-Person Show • Marquette Gallery • Cincinnati, OH • 2006–2005
• 1-Person Show • Bradford Brinton Memorial & Museum • Big Horn, WY • 2004
• 1-Person Show • Montana Trails Gallery • Bozeman, MT • 2007, 2005, 2004, 2002
• Salon International 2009–2004 • International Museum of Contemporary Masters of Fine Art
• Women’s City Club of Pasadena Exhibit • California Art Club • Pasadena, CA • 2004, 2003
• Biennial Invitational • Bradford Brinton Memorial & Museum • Big Horn, WY • 2004–2002
• Wyoming Invitational • Bradford Brinton Memorial & Museum • Big Horn, WY • 2003
• Southwest Art Selects—Artists to Watch & Steamboat Springs Arts Council • June 2003
• 5-Person Show • Bradford Brinton Memorial and Museum • Big Horn, WY • 2002
Publications & Awards
• Southwest Art, group article October 2010
• Art of the West, feature March/April 2010, Collector’s edition December 2010
• Western Art Collector, March issue 2009
• CreateBetterPaintings.com, May 2008
• American Art Collector, April issue 2008, April issue 2010
• Yachting Pacific Northwest, September/October issue 2007 article on “Boat Stories as Art”
• Great Artists of Today, 2005 calendar, December featured artist
• Honorable Mention for Artistic Excellence, Salon International 2007, 2005–2004
• “How Did You Paint That? 100 Ways to Paint Flowers & Gardens”: International Artist’s
• “Collector’s Choice”: Cowboys and Indians magazine, January, 2004
• “Artists to Watch”: Southwest Art magazine, December, 2002
• Born: May 3, 1970; Boise, Idaho
• Current residence: Montrose, CO
• Education: BA English, Boise State University, Boise, ID, 1996
John Frederick Kensett (1816-1872)
John Frederick Kensett was born on March 22, 1816 in Cheshire, Connecticut. His artistic career began as an engraver, but in 1840 Kensett went to study painting in England and France. There he studied the works of the Old Masters along with Asher B. Durand and John William Casilear. He took particular inspiration from the Dutch landscape masters.
Upon returning to the United Sates in 1848, he was a highly skilled artist and quickly became became established in the New York art world. His style would transitioned over the next few years from the pastoral Hudson River School style into what is known as Luminism. He emphasized light and atmosphere in his paintings.
He died in 1872 of phemonia. His studio at the time contained a several unfinished paintings that are now known as Last Summer’s Work. These works stunned the New York art world and were regarded as absolute works of genius.
Kensett is known as one of the leading Hudson River School artists. He was a full member of the National Academy of Design, the founder and president of the Artists’ Fund Society, and a founder and trustee of the Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Eugene Boudin (1824 - 1898)
Boudin was born in Deauville, Honfleur, Normandy. He grew up sailing on the Seine. His interest in art coincided with his father changing careers to become a frame maker. Boudin became an assistant in his father’s shop, and that experience gave Boudin the opportunity to meet artists working in the area including Jean-François Millet, Thomas Couture and Constant Tryon. Couture was especially encouraged him to become a dedicated artist.
In 1850, when he was age 26, he received a scholarship that allowed him to move to Paris. Meeting the Dutch painter, Johan Jongkind, regarded as a forerunner of the Impressionism of Claude Monet, Boudin was exposed to plein-air painting and encouraged by Jongkind to pursue it. Boudin met other artists that influened him, including Gustave Courbet and Charles Baudelaire, an influential critic who introduce Boudin to the public. Boudin had his debut at the Paris Salon, winning a third-place medal in 1881 and a Gold Medal in 1889 at the Exposition Universelle. Three years later he was made a knight of the Légion of Honor.
In 1874, Boudin joined Monet and other Impressionists in the first exhibition of works in that style. Towards the end of his life, he suffered ill health and knowing the end was near, returned to his hometown of Deauville to die within view of the water he loved so well.
Richard Phillips (b. 1962)
Born in Massachusetts in 1962, Richard Phillips lives and works in New York. Phillips is known for his large-scale glossy hyper-realistic paintings, recalling the pictorial style of magazines from the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s and reflecting traditions of popular image culture. His paintings represent close-up portraits, predominantly of women from fashion and soft porno magazines, but also persons from the fields of pop music and politics. He has exhibited his work in many individual and group exhibitions in the U.S. and Europe, including an important survey exhibition and catalogue at Le Consortium, Dijon in 2004, and is represented in important public and private collections such as the Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, NY; the Denver Museum, CO; the Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth, TX; the Museum of Modern Art, New York; the Museum of Contemporary Art, Miami; UBS Paine Webber Art Collection, New York; San Francisco Museum of Modern Art; Tate Modern, London; and the Whitney Museum of American Art, New York.
Fernand Leger (1881 - 1955)
Fernand Léger was born in 1881 in Normandy. In 1903, he applied to the Ecole des Beaux Arts in Paris but was denied admission, so he enrolled at the Acdemie Julian and the Ecole des Arts Decoratifs. The experience of seeing the Paul Cézanne retrospective at the Salon d’Automne in 1907 and his contact with the early Cubism of Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque had an extremely significant impact on the development of his personal style. From 1911 to 1914 Léger’s work became increasingly abstract, and he started to limit his color to the primaries and black and white. In 1912 he was given his first solo show at Galerie Kahnweiler, Paris.
His subject matter during the 1920s and 1930s reflected an interest in social equality. During this period, Léger began several series of paintings that have been called “cycles,” which show different groups of people in action. Regarded as the forerunner of the up and coming Pop Art style, Fernand Leger was a French painter, sculptor and filmmaker, working in his own form of cubism, modified into a figurative style. Léger’s influence can be found in the works of Stuart Davis, Willem de Kooning, Philip Guston, Louise Bourgeois, Arshile Gorky, Roy Lichtenstein, Andy Warhol, Frank Stella, Tom Wesselmann and James Rosenquist, among others.
Marino Marini (1901 - 1980)
Born in Pistoia, Marini is particularly famous for his series of stylised equestrian statues. He attended the Accademia Di Belle Arti in Florence in 1917. Although he never abandoned painting, Marini devoted himself primarily to sculpture from about 1922. From this time his work was influenced by Etruscan art and the sculpture of Arturo Martini. In 1928 Marino Marini traveled to Paris where he made his début as a sculptor, studied with Picasso and other leading modern artists. Marino Marini also was a close associate of Henry Moore.
In 1941 Marino Marini was appointed to the chair of sculpture at the “Accademia di Brera” in Milan. Two years later, he made the acquaintance of some important representatives of contemporary sculpture in Ticino. Alberto Giacometti, Fritz Wotruba and Germaine Richier encouraged him in his artistic ambitions and inspired his work. His work has a simplicity and his subjects focus, apart from his few portrait heads, to three themes: the female figure, the rider and horse and dancers. Marino Marini died on August 6, 1980
Albert Gleize (1881 - 1953)
The Cubist painter and art author Albert Gleizes was born in Paris in 1881. He trained as a tracer in his father’s firm. In 1901 Gleizes showed early landscape paintings in an Impressionist style at the Société Nationale’s exhibitions. As a co-founder of the “Salon d’Automne” and member of the “Salon des Indépendants” Albert Gleizes had close contact to the artistic avant-garde.
In February 1913, Gleizes and other artists introduced the new style of European modern art to an American audience at the Armory Show in New York City. In 1914 Albert Gleizes was drafted to military service and travelled until 1919 to the USA, Canada, Cuba, the Bermudas and to Spain. By 1919 the pre-war sense of the Cubist movement had been virtually shattered. Paris was overshadowed by a strong reaction against those visions of common effort and revolutionary construction which Gleizes continued to embrace, while the avant-garde was characterized by the anarchic and, to him, destructive spirit of Dada.
In the late 1930s, the wealthy American art connoisseur Peggy Guggenheim purchased a great deal of the new art in Paris including works by Albert Gleizes. His work is housed in many notable museum collections including: the Museum of Modern Art, New York; the Guggenheim Museum, New York; the Guggenheim, Venice; and the Tate Gallery, London.
Fitz Henry Lane (1804-1865)
Fitz Henry Lane was born on December 19, 1804, in Gloucester, Massachusetts. He is also known as Fitz Hugh Lane. As an artist, he had no formal training but early learned printmaking as he worked for Pendleton’s Lithography shop in Boston doing naval architecture drafts and topographical views of Boston and its harbor. After establishing himself as a printmaker and painter in Boston, Fitz Henry Lane returned to Gloucester in 1847 to concentrate on painting. He built a home and studio there by the sea.
It was in his studio that Fitz Henry Lane created works in oil based on his on-site drawings. He relied on the pencil sketches to remember what he had seen, but once in the studio he transformed the drawings into paintings that juxtaposed the mundane and the transcendent. As one of a select group of American marine painters who grew up by the sea, he was uniquely able to show the bustling life of a port. Perhaps most characteristic element of Lane’s paintings is the incredible amount of attention paid to detail—probably due in part to his lithographic training, as the specific style of lithography that was popular at the time of his training was characterized by the goal of verisimilitude.
Maria Blanchard (1881-1932)
Maria Gutierrez Blanchard was born in March of 1881, in Santander, Spain. In 1903, she began studying to become a painter in Madrid. In 1909, Maria won a grant to continue her studies in Paris, at the Academy Vitti (Academie Vitti), where she studied under Hermengildo Anglada Camarasa, and Kees Van Dongen. While at the Academy, Kees influenced her style and she began to break out of the constraints that she was taught earlier in Spain. It was during this time that she began to experiment with Cubism, after meeting artists Jacques Lipchitz and Juan Gris.
In 1910, while in Paris, Maria won a medal in the National Exhibition of Beautiful Arts and from 1914 to 1916 she taught drawing to select students in Salamanca. In 1916, she returned to Paris and began painting in the Cubist style. By 1920, Maria Blanchard began to return to a more traditional style of painting. Her colors were more poetic and the subjects in her paintings reflected the sadness that Maria felt in her own life.
Her artwork is included in the collections of the Bilbao Fine Arts Museum, the Hood Museum of Art at Dartmouth University, the Fundación Telefónica, the Musée d’Art Moderne in Geneva and Madrid’s Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía.
Egon Schiele (1890-1918)
Egon Schiele is, together with Richard Gerstl, Gustav Klimt and Oskar Kokoschka, one of the most important artists of turn-of-the-century Vienna. He applied at Kunstgewerbeschule (the School of Arts and Crafts) in Vienna, where Gustav Klimt had once studied. Within his first year there, Schiele was sent, at the insistence of several faculty members, to the more traditional Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna in 1906. There, he studied painting and drawing, but was frustrated by the school’s conservatism.
In 1907, Schiele sought out Gustav Klimt. Klimt generously mentored younger artists, and he took a particular interest in the gifted young Schiele, buying his drawings, offering to exchange them for some of his own, arranging models for him and introducing him to potential patrons. Schiele left the Academy in 1909, after completing his third year, and founded the Neukunstgruppe (“New Art Group”) with other dissatisfied students. Klimt invited Schiele to exhibit some of his work at the 1909 Vienna Kunstschau, where he encountered the work of Edvard Munch, Jan Toorop, and Vincent van Gogh among others.
World War I influenced Schiele’s life and work. He was initially stationed in Prague. In the army, Schiele was treated well by officers who respected his artistic talent. He never saw any fighting at the front, and was able to continue painting and sketching while guarding Russian prisoners of war, and doing light guard duties. By 1917, he was back in Vienna, able to focus on his artistic career.
Egon Scheile is known for being grotesque and erotic. Schiele participated in numerous group exhibitions, including those of the Neukunstgruppe in Prague in 1910 and Budapest in 1912; the Sonderbund, Cologne, in 1912; and several Secessionist shows in Munich, beginning in 1911. In 1913, the Galerie Hans Goltz, Munich, mounted Schiele’s first solo show. A solo exhibition of his work took place in Paris in 1914.
Wilson Henry Irvine (1869-1936)
Born in Byron, Illinois, Wilson Irvine became an Impressionist landscape painter, who exhibited for many years at the Art Institute of Chicago and then became a part of the Art Colony at Old Lyme, Connecticut. He also did monotypes called aqua prints that were abstract in style compared to his other paintings.
He enrolled in an art school run by Liberty Walkup, inventor of the airbrush. In 1893, he was employed by the Chicago Portrait Company and took classes at the Art Institute of Chicago between 1895 and 1903. By 1900, he began exhibiting at the Institute and also was close to the Hoosier Group, Indiana Impressionist artists.
He spent the summer of 1914 in Connecticut and became associated with the Old Lyme Colony. In 1918, he moved there permanently, but he maintained close ties to the Midwest.
Ralph Goings (b.1928)
Ralph Goings is one of the most talented artists of the photo-realist movement. He received his undergraduate degree in art at the California College of Arts and Crafts. In 1966, he attended Sacramento State University and got a Masters degree in Fine Art. His studies there influenced his interest in a realistic approach to painting.
Goings traveled around California taking photographs to use for the basis of his paintings. With a subject selected, he would project the photo onto a canvas and pencil in the lines and details. The photograph would eventually be transformed into a painting with extraordinary detail and clarity without any brush strokes giving the painting a realistic effect.
Goings explored other subject matter as well, painting diners, fast-food stops and supermarkets in urban, middle-class America. Later in New York, he focused his subjects on the interiors of diners,and other buildings. He always concentrated on scenes with no emotion giving the work an objective view. He had a one man show at Artists Cooperative Gallery, Sacramento, California (1960), and among many group exhibitions he has shown his work in the O.K. Harris Gallery in New York (1980).
Ralph Goings has exhibited in US, Europe and Japan. His work can be found in museums and private collections in the United States and abroad. He is recognized as one of the original members of the Hyper-Realist or Photo-Realist group of the late 1960′s.
Jean-Michel Basquiat (1960-1988)
Jean-Michel Basquiat was an American artist born in Brooklyn, New York. He gained fame, first as a graffiti artist in New York City, and then as a highly successful avant-garde artist in the international art scene of the 1980s.
In 1977, when he was 17, Basquiat and his friend Al Diaz started spray-painting graffiti art on subway cars and slum buildings in lower Manhattan, adding the infamous signature of SAMO, meaning Same Old Shit. In 1980, he participated in a multi-artist exhibition, sponsored by Collaborative Projects Incorporated and working with artists such as Keith Haring and Barbara Kruger.
Basquiat used painterly gestures on canvas, most often depicting skeletal figures and mask-like faces that expressed his obsession with mortality, and imagery derived from his street existence, such as automobiles, buildings, police, children’s sidewalk games, and graffiti. As his work evolved, he used writing, collage and seemingly unrelated imagery, but reflect strong interest in his black and Hispanic identity.
In 1983, Basquiat befriended Andy Warhol and the two made a number of collaborative works. By 1984, Basquiat used excessive drugs and behaved erratically, displaying signs of paranoia. Basquiat appeared on the cover of The New York Times Magazine in a feature entitled “New Art, New Money: The Marketing of an American Artist” in 1985. Warhol’s death in 1987 greatly effected Basquiat. He continued to struggle with his addictions. He soon died of a heroin overdose.
Hans Hofmann (1880-1966)
Claudio Bravo (1936-2011)
Claudio Bravo, a Chilean-born artist whose technically dazzling trompe-l’oeil paintings of paper-wrapped packages and draped cloth blended hyper-realism and classical Spanish influences, died on June 4 at his home in Taroudant, Morocco. He was 74.
The cause was complications of epilepsy, David Robinson, the director of his New York gallery, Marlborough, said.
After working in Madrid in the 1960s and establishing a reputation as a society portrait painter, Mr. Bravo made an immediate impact with his first New York show, at the Staempfli Gallery in 1970.
His paintings, depicting crumpled paper, paper bags and paper-wrapped packages tied with string, put technical virtuosity at the service of an imagination shaped by old master painting, especially the work of 17th-century Spanish artists like Zurbarán, Cotán and Velázquez. Unlike American photorealists, who took the world as they found it, Mr. Bravo rooted his commonplace objects in a rich art-historical soil that lent depth and mystery to his work.
The headline in The New York Times to John Canaday’s review of that 1970 show was an art dealer’s dream: “The Amazing Paintings of Bravo.”
After moving to Tangier in 1972, Mr. Bravo expanded his repertory to include landscapes, animal portraits, still lifes and human subjects, often in exotic Moroccan costume. He later executed a series of paintings that deployed lush, color-saturated fabrics that looked as if they had been snatched from old master paintings.
Ken Johnson, in a review in The New York Times of Mr. Bravo’s fabric paintings at Marlborough in 2000, wrote that “you could think of this work not as realism but as a kind of soulfully enriched Color Field painting.”
Claudio Nelson Bravo Camus was born on Nov. 8, 1936, in Valparaíso, Chile, and grew up on his family’s farm in Melipilla, where his father was a rancher and businessman. While attending a Jesuit school in Valparaíso, he took lessons with Miguel Venegas Cifuentes, an academic artist, but he was largely self-taught.
At 17, he had his first exhibition at the prestigious Salón 13 in Valparaíso. He also danced with the Compañia de Ballet de Chile and acted at the Teatro Ensayo at the Catholic University of Chile, but after moving to Concepción he became a sought-after portrait painter.
In 1961 he moved to Spain and continued to paint socially prominent subjects, including the daughter of Gen. Francisco Franco. In 1968 he was invited to the Philippines to paint Ferdinand and Imelda Marcos and other members of that country’s elite.
It was during this period that he began painting packages in a heightened realist style. “The photorealists, like machines, copied directly from photographs,” he told Americas magazine in 2001. “Always I have relied on the actual subject matter because the eye sees so much more than the camera: half tones, shadows, minute changes in the color or light. I think I was working more in the tradition of the Color Field artists, like Mark Rothko, whom I still greatly admire. There was also a touch of the Spanish artist Antoni Tàpies, because he, too, did paintings involving string across a canvas surface.”
Mr. Bravo was hugely successful. He owned four villas in Morocco and an apartment in Manhattan. In 2004 Sotheby’s sold his 1967 painting White Package for more than $1 million.
Although strong demand for his paintings freed him from the need to do portrait work, he did accept the occasional commission. In 1978 he painted a portrait of Malcolm Forbes, dressed in a motorcycle racer’s jumpsuit and surrounded by motorcycle helmets.
In 1994 the National Museum of Fine Arts in Santiago mounted a retrospective exhibition of his work that drew more than 280,000 visitors. “That exhibit was a social phenomenon,” the museum’s director, Milan Ivelic, told the newspaper El Mercurio. “No one imagined that over 250,000 people were going to attend, because Bravo had spent the previous two decades living in Morocco and was virtually unknown here in Chile. He had never had much Chilean coverage, but people came in droves nonetheless.”
Mr. Bravo is survived by two sisters, Pilia Bravo of Zaragoza, Spain, and Jimena Bravo of London.
His work is the subject of two large monographs, Claudio Bravo: Paintings and Drawings, published in 1997 by Abbeville Press, and Claudio Bravo: Painting and Drawings, published in 2005 by Rizzoli.
Claude Monet (1840-1926)
Claude Monet was a successful caricaturist in his native Le Havre, but after studying plein-air landscape painting, he moved to Paris in 1859. He soon met future Impressionists Camille Pissarro and Pierre-Auguste Renoir. Renoir and Monet began painting outdoors together in the late 1860s, laying the foundations of Impressionism. In 1874, with Pissarro and Edgar Degas, Monet helped organize the Société Anonyme des Artistes, Peintres, Sculpteurs, Graveurs, etc., the formal name of the Impressionists’ group. During the 1870s Monet developed his technique for rendering atmospheric outdoor light, using broken, rhythmic brushwork. He received little but abuse from public and critics alike, who complained that the paintings were formless, unfinished, and ugly. He and his family endured abject poverty. By the 1880s, however, his paintings started selling; Pissarro accused him of commercialism, and younger painters called him passé, for he remained loyal to the Impressionists’ early goal of capturing the transitory effects of nature through direct observation. In 1890 he began creating paintings in series, depicting the same subject under various conditions and at different times of the day. His late pictures, made when he was half-blind, are shimmering pools of color almost totally devoid of form.
Rudolf Bauer (1889-1953)
Theodore Clement Steele (1847-1926)
Rufino Tamayo (1899-1991)
Rufino Tamayo, born in Oaxaca on August 26, 1899, was one of the main artists to define modern painting in Mexico. After working for more than 25 years in the United States and Europe, he returned to Mexico in 1964, where he founded two museums. Tamayo was primarily a painter of easel work, but he also painted murals and created graphic arts. With the Mexican painter and engineer Luis Remba, Tamayo expanded the technical and aesthetic possibilities of the graphic arts by creating a new genre of limited edition printing, which they named Mixografia.
Tamayo had little formal schooling and spent most of his time drawing, often heading to the National Museum to sit and sketch the archeological treasures of Mexico. At 17, he attended a commercial art school. In 1926, he has his first one man show in Mexico and soon after had his premier in New York. He spent his next ten years in New York teaching at the Brooklyn Museum of Art and producing a prolific body of work. Throughout Tamayo’s seventy year career, the human body, especially the female, was an object of constant aesthetic reflection. This resulted in an extensive gallery of female nudes on canvas and in some of his most renowned graphic works.
The Tamayo Contemporary Art Museum, located in Mexico City, was opened in 1981 for the collections that Rufino Tamayo and his wife acquired during their lifetimes, and ultimately donated to the nation.
Eugene Von Blaas (1843-1931)
An Italian painter born to Austrian parents, Eugene von Blaas, also known as Eugene de Blaas, became a late 19th, early 20th century figure and genre painter in the style of Academic Classicism. He was most associated with Venetian subjects especially voluptuous female water carriers. Many of his scenes, painted either in oil or watercolor, suggest male and female flirtation between fisher folk as they go about their daily business. The artist often used his wife, Paola Prina, as a model.
He was born in Albino, near Rome and moved to Venice as a young man with his family because his father, Karl von Blaas (1815-1894), a history and fresco painter, became Professor at the Art Academy. Eugene studied with his father but chose different subject matter. He also studied at the Academy in Venice and the Academy of Rome.
Eugene von Blaas had extensive exposure to his work through exhibitions including the Esposizione Nationale exhibitions in Venice and the Jubilaums Austellungs in Vienna and Municht. In London, his paintings were exhibited at the Royal Academy, the New Gallery and the Grafton Gallery. Works by Eugene de Blaas can be found in many public and private collections throughout the world, most notably in institutions in Melbourne, Sydney, Vienna, Leicester, Nottingham, Sheffield, and the Art Gallery of New South Wales.
Eugene von Blaas died in Venice in 1932.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eugene_de_Blaas (no source cited)
Paul Gosselin, Artist and Researcher
James Ensor (1860-1949)
Kurt Schwitters (1887-1948)
Kurt Schwitters creator of the magazine MERZ spent his life creating works of art and literature following this form. This art consists of discarded and rejected objects which the artist found or received from friends and associates.
Born in 1887 in Hanover, Germany Schwitters’ parents encouraged him in his art studies. He attended the Kunstgewerbeschule in Hanover and the Kunstakademie in Dresden until 1914. He returned to Hanover and married Helma Fischer. His works followed an Expressionist style until his brief time in the army during WWI when they took on a more modern style. In the early 1920s these works gained him recognition with the Dada movement.
In 1923 Schwitters began publication of MERZ which brought forth constructivism in art. His work on the magazine allowed him to branch into the advertising and design business as well. He established in 1927 with the help of Friedrich Vordemberge-Gildewart the “Ring neue Werbegestalter”.
During this time he began work on his sculpture the Merzbau or Cathedral of Erotic Misery. The sculpture was constructed in his studio out of various materials and became large enough that the ceiling was removed to continue the project. Many of the materials used for this project were personal belongings of friends, family and from himself. A bombing raid destroyed this work in 1943.
Before the onset of WWII, many of Schwitters’ works were confiscated by the Nazi regime with some being exhibited in the “Degenerate Art Exhibit” forcing the artist with his son to flee to Norway. Residing in Norway, the artist returned to the use of natural materials and landscapes. His second sculpture of the Merzbau was constructed in Lysakar and was destroyed by fire in 1951. The German invasion of Norway forced Schwitters and his son to flee again, this time to England.
In England Kurt Schwitters spent some time in an internment camp before moving to London in 1941. He continued to create sculptures and began a third form of the Merzbau in an old barn he used for a studio located in the Lake District near Ambleside. He died on January 8, 1948 near Ambleside of a prolonged illness.
In early 2009 artist Damien Hirst and Ian Hunter began efforts to restore the barn studio Schwitters used in the Lake District. The restoration project will house a replica of the Merzbau built there and serve as a community gallery.
Art Directory – www.schitters-kurt.com
Oxford University Press article by Richard Humphreys from Grove Art Online – www.merzbau.org/Schwitters.html
Bookrags – www.bookrags.com
Guardian article “Kurt Schwitters, the great Dadaist of Cumbria” by Philip Oltermann, April 28, 2009 – www.guardian.co.uk/artanddesign/2009/apr/28/kurt-schwitters-dadaism-barn-cumbria
Edan Hughes, “Artists in California, 1786-1940”
Henri Le Sidaner (1862-1939)
Le Sidaner’s work was been described as musicality and silence. Henri Le Sidaner was born on the island of Mauritius in 1862. He studied under Alexandre Cabanel until 1885 and was introduced to the work of Edouard Manet who influenced Le Sidaner’s artistic development.
In 1887, he started to exhibit at the Salon des Artistes Francais. His work was well received and won him trips to Italy and Holland in 1891. Soon he began showing Impressionists works with a style influenced by Monet. Continuously evolving, Le Sidaner painted Symbolist themes with women dressed in white in dimly-lit gardens. Later Henri Le Sidaner moved away from painting figures in favor of gardens and interiors of the home where he lived in 1901 and 1902. He did, however, often imply human presence in a set table or an open book, adding to the intimate yet mysterious quality of his painting.
Along with his friends Henri Martin and Ernest Laurent, Le Sidaner was associated with Neo-Impressionism but tempered its techniques with a traditional approach. He received prominence and was regularly given solo shows in Paris, London, Brussels, and the United States. In 1930 he was made a professor at the Academie des Beaux-Arts, replacing Ernest Laurent, and was named its president in 1937. Henri Le Sidanar’s work is included in the museum collections of Phillips Collection, Washington, D.C.; Detroit Intsitute of the Arts, MI; Musee d’Art Modern, Paris; Museum of Modern Art, Rome; Nelson Atkins Museum, Kansas City; Ashmolean Musem, Oxford; Phoenix Art Musem, AZ; Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco and The Tate Collection, England
George Benjamin Luks (1867-1933)
George Luks was born on August 13, 1867 in Williamsport, Pennsylvania. Luks received his first art instruction from his parents who pursued painting as a hobby. At seventeen he entered the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts. Later he went to Düsseldorf where he lived with a distant relative, a retired lion-tamer. He abandoned Düsseldorf for the more stimulating spheres of London and Paris. When he returned to America he worked as an artist for Philadelphia newspapers. In 1896 he was sent to Cuba as a war artist; rumor had it he was captured by the Spaniards and condemned to death as a spy, but he was deported instead and landed in New York, cold, hungry and broke.
In 1894 he joined the staff of the “Philadelphia Press” as an illustrator. He moved into a one-room flat with fellow illustrator, Everett Shinn. Through his illustration work, Luks became acquainted with William Glackens, John Sloan and eventually Robert Henri and these artists including Shinn later became known as the Philadelphia Five. In April of 1896, after serving as a war correspondent in Cuba, Luks moved to New York City where he joined the staff of the “New York World” and began to draw a comic strip. He spent some time doing comic strips and then gave up newspaper work to devote his full energies to painting. His early experience as a newspaper artist had stimulated his interest in the American scene. Choosing the sidewalks of New York City as his province he proceeded to paint the subjects he saw there with a frankness that dismayed the academicians. He turned to landscape painting with enthusiasm.
Luks taught at the Art Students League from 1920 through 1924 and he later conducted his own classes in his own studio. Luk’s personality was as famous as his paintings. A loud, boastful but purportedly good-humored man, he was also a heavy drinker. On October 29, 1933, he was found dead on the streets of New York City, a casualty of a barroom brawl.
The Metropolitan Museum of Art exhibition: Miniatures: The Eight
From the internet, AskART.com
Charles Burchfield (1893-1967)
Charles E. Burchfield was born in Ashtabula Harbor, Ohio on April 9,1893. He was a shy and somewhat lonely youngster and he spent long hours exploring the nearby woods. He was known to paint in the pouring rain; his perseverance paid off in some of the most unusual nature paintings in American art. Toward the end of high school he started writing in a journal, which he kept up regularly for the next fifty years. By the time he died, the journal filled seventy-two volumes. After graduating from high school, Burchfield studied at the Cleveland School of Art. There, it was not the modernistic battles raging in Paris or at New York’s Armory Show that influenced him, but Chinese scrolls and Japanese prints.
After graduating from Cleveland, Burchfield went to New York City, where he received a scholarship to the National Academy of Design. But he was miserable there, and within two months he returned to Salem where, except for a brief stint in the Army, he lived with his mother for the next five years. He returned immediately to his regular job when he got home but working five days a week and Saturday mornings did not leave him much time to paint.
Burchfield had lived from 1898 to 1921 in Salem, Ohio. Burchfield considered the year 1915 to be the beginning of his career. Still in school, he began to put down on paper abstractions of natural forces such as the sun, wind, rain, and storm in a flat, boldly patterned style. For the next six years he used watercolor to capture childhood memories and give pictorial form to recollected fears, dreams, and fantasies. At the age of twenty-four he experienced what he would later call his “golden year.” It was 1917, during which he produced watercolors at a rate of two or three a week in an explosion of talent.
Burchfield’s Salem period came to an end in 1921 when, at age twenty-eight, he moved to Buffalo, New York to take a job designing wallpaper for M.H.Birge and Sons. He married Bertha Kenreich; they raised four girls and a boy. The family lived in a modest house in Gardenville, directly east of Buffalo. In a deep back lot was a garden and a small studio where Burchfield worked. After eight years, he left Birge to devote all his time to making his work larger, grander and more realistic. His struggle to express his intense response to nature with his personal symbolic vocabulary continued until his death in 1967.
Henry Adams in Smithsonian Magazine
Time magazine, June 15, 1970
The Last Pantheist by Bonnie Barrett Stretch in ARTnews, May 1984
David Johnson (1827-1908)
A landscape painter based in New York City and associated with the second generation of Hudson River School painters, David Johnson was noted for his ability to delineate accurately rock formations and foliage. He was especially influenced by the work of Hudson River painters Jasper Francis Cropsey, John Casilear, and John Frederick Kensett. He also painted an occasional still life.
Johnson was born and raised in New York City, but little else is known about his early life. He studied briefly with Cropsey but said that his best teacher was nature, which he utilized in his paintings from his frequent trips to the Hudson River Valley, especially the areas around West Point and Fort Putnam.
He painted his first nature studies in 1849, and that year first received public acclaim for his work exhibited at the National Academy of Design and the American Art Union. In 1860, he was elected a full Academician. Primarily he painted in the Northeast, doing views of the Catskills, Adirondacks, Lake George, the Hudson River and the White Mountains, where he worked in the early 1850s with a colony of artists around North Conway.
His early landscapes tend to be panoramas, rock studies, or forest interiors. In the middle of his career, he adopted a more luminist style and did tranquil marine scenes such as flowing rivers, and his later work showed Tonalist influence of the French Barbizon School with pastoral subjects. It is written that this period in his career was not much distinguished and that “Influenced by the barbizon style, his work became monotonous and less articulate.” (Zellman 223)
In the 1880s, his reputation began to diminish, and by the time he died his work was virtually unappreciated. Many years later, it was re-discovered by scholars who appreciated his great skills of naturalist documentation.
Michael David Zellman, 300 Years of American Art
John Howat, The Hudson River and Its Painters
Friedrich Kuhnert (1865-1926)
A German painter, illustrator and author, he specialized in animal pictures, with his work including drawings, etchings, watercolors and oil paintings.
Friedrich Wilhelm Kuhnert was born in Oppeln on September 18, 1865, and at the age of 17, he began but did not complete, a technical and commercial apprenticeship. From 1883 to 1887 Kuhnert studied on scholarship at the ‘Königliche Akademische Hochschule für Bildende Künste’ in Berlin. From Berlin, he traveled north and to Egypt, East Africa and India, producing extensive landscape and animal studies. His favorite subject were African lions. He studied and drew tropical animals in their natural habitat, not only in zoological gardens.
In 1894, he married the 18-year-old Emilie Herdikerhoff. The couple had one daughter but divorced in 1909. That year Friedrich Wilhelm Kuhnert also illustrated the book Tierleben der Erde, (Animals of the Earth) which he had co-written with zoologist Johann Wilhelm Haacke. Kuhnert married again in 1913 and died on February 11, 1926 while in Flims, Switzerland.
Joaquin Sorolla (1863-1923)
A painter and graphic artist especially known for his lighting effects on canvas and rich coloration, Joaquin Sorolla Y Bastida was from Valencia, Spain. His subjects were portraits, landscapes and genre, and he also did book illustrations. He was a plein-air painter, which was revolutionary in late 19th century Spain, and his style was influenced by Impressionism but dominated by Luminism. Unlike many of his contemporaries who were influenced by the abstract movements from France and Germany, he stayed with recognizable subjects, which became increasingly outmoded into the 20th century.
As a young man in Valencia, he began the study of art at age fifteen, and then went to Madrid where he copied Old Master paintings in the Museo del Prado. Winning a scholarship, he spent four years studying in Rome, and during this time he developed his skills in working with lighting effects. When he returned to Paris, he discovered demand for his work, especially after his entries in the 1901 Exposition Universelle.
Many of his early paintings had religious and social themes, and he was much in demand for portraits with sitters including Louis Comfort Tiffany, artist; King Alfonso XIII of Spain; and William Howard Taft, President of the United States. But as Sorolla’s career moved along, he turned away from that and focused on works with “blinding light and vibrant color”, (Saint Andre) many of them being Valencien beach scenes.
In the United States, Archer Milton Huntington, promoting the Hispanic Society of America, commissioned Sorolla to do a series of paintings about Spain. The artist devoted seven years (1912-1919) to the multi-paneled work and upon completion was exhausted by the intense labor. The next year he had a stroke, and three years later died.
After his death, art scholars and critics tended to ignore his work and its place in art history. However, an 1989 show in New York stirred renewed interest as did a book by Edmund Peel, The Painter Joaquin Sorolla. His house in Madrid is now the Museo Sorolla, dedicated to the works of his career by his widow who determined that her husband’s paintings be left in a way that was accessible by the people of Spain. The J. Paul Getty Museum has work by Sorolla, beginning with a purchase in 1933 by Mr. Getty of ten of his paintings.
Lucian Freud (1922-2011)
He was born in December, 1922, one of three brothers who were brought up in Berlin. He is the grandson of Sigmund Freud. As a youth, Lucian belonged to a gang, roamed the streets, and stole chocolate when dared. Friends of his joined the Hitler Youth because they reported, you got good sausage there. His father was an architect who was prevented from working in Germany in 1933 and who moved his family to England before things in Germany got worse.
A decisive influence was Francis Bacon, a fellow artist at the 1954 Venice Biennale and the subject of one of his most famous works, a head painted in oil on copper in 1952. Bacon’s free, daring brushwork led Mr. Freud to abandon the linear, thinly painted portraits of the 1940s and move toward the brushy, searching portrait style of his mature work, with its severely muted palette of browns and yellows. His female subjects in particular seemed not just nude but obtrusively naked. Mr. Freud pushed this effect so far, Russell once noted, “that we sometimes wonder if we have any right to be there.” By contrast, his horses and dogs, like his whippets Pluto and Eli, were evoked with tender solicitude.
Freud was married twice. His first wife was Kitty Epstein, daughter of the sculptor Jacob Epstein. His second wife was Caroline Blackwood, who went on to marry the American poet, Robert Lowell. He had several daughters and sons; he often used them for models. His mother, Lucie (for whom he was named) became his model in the 1970s. Freud always claimed that his work was purely autobiographical. He never claimed to be a visionary and he never invented the subject matter of his paintings.
Elmer Nelson Bischoff (1916-1991)
Elmer Nelson Bischoff was born in 1916 and grew up in Berkeley, California. He was an important figure in the California Bay Area abstract and figurative movement after World War II. Elmer Bischoff graduated in 1939 from the University of California. As an art student there, he had been strongly influenced by Margaret Peterson, and spent about ten years painting in the style of Picasso.
After graduation, he was a ceramics and jewelry teacher at a high school in Sacramento and then served three years in the Army Air Force in London during World War II. In 1946, he became a part of the faculty of the California School of Fine Art but resigned in 1952.
During this time he was influenced by his association with David Park. He made the transition from pure abstraction to figurative painting, but his work was softer than Park’s. For income, Bischoff drove a truck for Railway Express and sketched during his lunch hour.
From 1953 to 1956, he was an art instructor at Yuba College at Maryville and then had a watershed one-man exhibition at the California School of Fine Arts in 1956 when he got much recognition. From that time, he chaired the CSFA graduate school and became one of the school’s most influential teachers. In 1963, he joined the faculty at the University of California at Berkeley.
In the 1970s, he changed from oil to acrylic paint and moved from figurative abstraction to energetic works that hearkened back to the Abstract Expressionism he had given up earlier.
Charles Marion Russell (1864-1926)
Considered by many to be the premier artist of the American West, Charles Russell was no armchair cowboy. Born into a wealthy St. Louis family on March 19, 1864, he had his imagination piqued by stories his grandmother, Lucy Bent Russell, told about her brothers, the Bent Boys, who were famous frontier adventurers. Instead of going to school, Charlie would play hooky and hang around the docks of the thriving Mississippi, visiting with pioneers who were heading West. His parents even sent him to New Jersey to a military school in the hopes of “shaping him up"but his dream was only intensified.
Russell was a masterful painter, and each of his paintings told a great story. Even the titles of the paintings told what the story depicted was about. On September 9, 1896 he married Nancy Cooper, and they moved to Great Falls. She was fourteen years his junior; she was a strong-willed woman and encouraged him to write short stories. She demanded such high prices she earned the name “Nancy the Robber”. She became his business manager and slowly but carefully built up his reputation and stopped his practice of giving away his art. Russell began to sell his paintings at good prices and together he and Nancy began to enjoy the rewards of fame. He died in Great Falls, Montana on October 24, 1926 of a heart attack.
Laurence Stephen Lowry (1887-1976)
An English born artist, Laurence Lowry became well known in northern England during his lifetime and did many drawings and paintings reflecting his native region around the city of Manchester. Some of his works are town scenes of his birthplace, Stretford, and of Pendlebury, where he lived and had his studio for over 30 years. A focus for him was the lives of people in industrial settings such as Coming from the Mill (1930) and Industrial Landscape (1955). Often his drawings and paintings conveyed no sense of weather or geographic setting beyond the immediate scene.
He often drew and painted bustling city life with ‘matchstick men’, a name applied to his hastily drawn figures. Some of his images, however, suggested mystery and foreboding and quiet, such as landscapes with no sign of human activity. It is possible that the tone of these paintings and drawings related to his childhood, which was unhappy because of his loneliness and lack of social skills, likely tied to the oppression of his domineering, controlling mother, who manipulated those around her by selective bouts of illness.
During World War II, he served as a war artist, and in 1953, received the appointment of Official Artist at the Coronation of Queen Elizabeth II. In the 1950s, he had a job as Chief Cashier for the Pall Mall Property Company, whose personnel in charge allowed him time off for painting and exhibitions of his work. However, he kept the fact secret that he had a job, wanting people to think he was a full time artist. Lowry’s style was naive, and art professionals are not in agreement as to whether he was in fact an artist without much training or whether the naive style was deliberate.
On February 23, 1976, he died at age 88 of pneumonia in a hospital in Glossop. He was buried in Manchester next to his parents. He left his considerable estate to Carol Ann Lowry, a girl not related to him but one with artistic talent whom he encouraged from the time she was age 13.
The town of Salford Quays, near Manchester, which is also a setting for many of his works, has an art gallery in The Lowry Centre called the Lowry Gallery, dedicated to artworks by Laurence Lowry. Among his honors were the Freedom of the City of Salford Award.
Gustave Loiseau (1865-1935)
Gustive Loiseau was Born in 1865. He became an apprentice to a decorator friend of the family. In 1887, he established himself in Montmartre, first in the Rue Myrrha and then at La Maison du Trappeur. He enrolled for one year in the Ecole des Arts-Décoratifs in 1888, where he followed courses in life-drawing, which he felt he needed, until an argument with his teacher prompted him to withdraw.
While still working with the decorator, one of Loiseau’s jobs had been to redecorate the apartment of the painter Fernand Just Quignon. Upon his departure from the Ecole des Arts-Décoratifs, Loiseau turned to this landscape painter as his teacher. He spent months at Quignon’s studio, but eventually felt disappointed in the approach and methods of his mentor; he sought an attractive and inexpensive location where he could concentrate on landscapes and follow his personal inclinations and artistic convictions. On the advice of Quignon, a frequent visitor to Brittany, Loiseau arrived in Pont Aven for the first time in May of 1890. He befriended the myriad of artists in residence there, most importantly Paul Gauguin, as well as Maxime Maufra and Emile Bernard.
Loiseau developed a type of ‘cross-hatching’* technique, called en treillis (latticework), which gave his paintings the supple, almost touchable quality for which he is known.
He debuted at the Salon des Indèpendants* in 1893, as well as in 1895 at the Salon of the Société Nationale*. He also figured prominently at the group Impressionist* shows in 1890 and 1896.
Toward the end of his life, while maintaining a studio on the quai du Pothius at Pontoise, Loiseau took another studio on the quai d’Anjou in Paris, where he painted from his window, as he had done in Pont-Aven.
He died in Paris in 1935.
Fang Lijun (b.1963)
Fang Lijun, born in 1963 in Handan, Hebei province is one of the leading and most influential contemporary artists in china. Fang Lijun is known to be one of the main forerunners of the early 1990’s movement known as Cynical Realism. This artistic trend evolved as a result of the aftermath of the 1989 student demonstrations in Tiananmen and the closing of the “China Avant-Garde” exhibition at the China national Gallery in Beijing. These events which symbolize the climax of the artistic aspirations that built up during the 1980’s collapsed at once and created a void that Fang Lijun and others filled with a new message full of irony and indifference to the big forces that the individual is subject to. Fang Lijun was one of the first artists to translate this new social temperament onto the canvas. The idealism of the 1980’s gave room to a more somber and realistic understanding of the role of avant-garde art under a one party regime. Fang Lijun redefined the new artistic tendencies of contemporary Chinese art in the 1990’s. The tragic events which gave birth to Cynical Realism represent a drawback in the Arts community self confidence drive to tackle serious issues in a critical eye. Much like a capable person, physically weak being bullied by a stronger, not necessarily smarter opponent. The weak can’t fight they are left with nothing but a cynical smile which comes to terms with their inability to prevail.
Fang Lijun’s famous figure, together with Yue Minjun’s representative character, have already become well known icons in the world of Chinese contemporary art. Fang Lijun’s bald man with his ambiguous expression and dreamlike background of unlimited space and freedom became a symbol of the subtle mockery that one can detect in the works of the Cynical Realism artists.
Paul Klee (1879-1940)
A Swiss-born painter and graphic artist, Paul Klee was born on December 18, 1879, in Munchenbuchsee, Switzerland, into a family of musicians. His personal, often gently humorous works are filled with allusions to dreams, music, and poetry, and are difficult to classify. Primitive art, surrealism, cubism, and children’s art all seem blended into his small-scale, delicate paintings, watercolors, and drawings.
Klee’s early works are mostly etchings and pen-and-ink drawings. These combine satirical, grotesque, and surreal elements, and some reveal the influence of Francisco de Goya and James Ensor, both of whom Klee admired. After his marriage in 1906 to the pianist Lili Stumpf, Klee settled in Munich, then an important center for avant-garde art. That same year he exhibited his etchings for the first time. His friendship with the painters Wassily Kandinsky and August Macke prompted him to join Der Blaue Reiter (The Blue Rider), an expressionist group that contributed much to the development of abstract art.
A turning point in Klee’s career was his visit to Tunisia with Macke and Louis Molliet in 1914. He was so overwhelmed by the intense light there that he wrote: “Color has taken possession of me; no longer do I have to chase after it, I know that it has hold of me forever. That is the significance of this blessed moment. Color and I are one. I am a painter”.
In 1920, a major Klee retrospective was held at the Galerie Hans Goltz, Munich; his Schöpferische Konfession was published; he was also appointed to the faculty of the Bauhaus. Klee taught at the Bauhaus in Weimar from 1921 to 1926 and in Dessau from 1926 to 1931. During his tenure, he was in close contact with other Bauhaus masters, such as Kandinsky and Lyonel Feininger. In 1924, the Blaue Vier, consisting of Lyonel Feininger, Jawlensky, Kandinsky, and Klee, was founded.
Among his notable exhibitions of this period were his first in the United States at the Société Anonyme, New York, in 1924; his first major show in Paris the following year at the Galerie Vavin-Raspail; and an exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art, New York, in 1930. Klee went to Düsseldorf to teach at the Akademie in 1931, shortly before the Nazis closed the Bauhaus.
Forced by the Nazis to leave his position in Düsseldorf in 1933, Klee settled in Bern the following year. Seventeen of his works were included in the Nazi exhibition of “degenerate art,” Entartete Kunst, in 1937. Major Klee exhibitions took place in Bern and Basel in 1935 and in Zurich in 1940.
Klee died on June 29, 1940, in Muralto-Locarno, Switzerland.
Website of the Guggenheim Museum, and to Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia. Compiled by T.Collins.
Ernst Kirchner (1880-1938)
Ernst Kirchner was born in Dresden, Germany in 1880. The son of an engineer in a paper plant, Kirchner studied architecture at his father’s insistence, but switched to painting as soon as he got his diploma. In 1905 he and three former fellow students set up a studio in an empty Dresden butcher shop and proclaimed themselves leaders of a new movement they called Die Brucke (The Bridge). The members endlessly read French and German philosophers, drank into the night, took midnight swims with their female models, absorbed everything in museums and galleries. In 1911, they moved to Berlin.
Kirchner had developed a style of his own; he had begun painting the famed street scenes that were to be his forte. As a German expressionist, his works were both romantic and subjective. His paintings were elegant with long and pointed figures done in quick jagged strokes. His color was arbitrary, used to express a mood.
In 1914, after volunteering for the artillery, Kirchner had a nervous breakdown and was found to be suffering from tuberculosis. From then on, his life became a battle against alcohol, dope and in his last years, the Nazis. In 1937 the Nazis removed six hundred thirty-nine of his works from German museums; thirty-two were displayed in the notorious Munich exhibit of “degenerate art”. Less than a year later, in 1938, at the age of fifty-eight, Kirchner ended his life by shooting himself.
Lawren Stewart Harris (1885-1970)
Lawren Stewart Harris was a leading landscape painter, imbuing his paintings with a spiritual dimension. An inspirer of other artists, he was a key figure in the Group of Seven and gave new vision to representations of the northern Canadian landscape. Harris spent three years studying in Germany (1904–07), where he became interested in theosophy, a mystical branch of religious philosophy that would inform his later painting. Coming from a wealthy family he was able to devote himself entirely to his art. At the Arts and Letters Club in Toronto Harris met other artists with similar nationalist concerns. In 1920 Harris, J.E.H. MacDonald, Frank Johnston, Franklin Carmichael, A.Y. Jackson, F.H. Varley, and Arthur Lismer formed the Group of Seven. These artists would collectively create a range of new representations of the Canadian landscape, particularly the North.
Over the course of his career, Harris’s painting evolved from Impressionist-influenced, decorative landscapes to stark images of the northern landscape to geometric abstractions. He painted in the Algoma region from 1918 to 1924, on the north shore of Lake Superior from 1921 to 1928, in the Rocky Mountains from 1924, and in the Arctic in 1930. For Harris art was to express spiritual values as well as to represent the visible world. North Shore, Lake Superior (1926), an image of a solitary weathered tree stump surrounded by an expanse of dramatically lit sky, effectively evokes the tension between the terrestrial and spiritual.
From 1934 to 1937, Harris lived in Hanover, New Hampshire, where he painted his first abstract works, a direction he would continue for the rest of his life. In 1938 he moved to Sante Fe, New Mexico, and helped found the Transcendental Painting Group, an organization of artists who advocated a spiritual form of abstraction.
Harris settled in Vancouver in 1940, where he continued to paint and involve himself with arts organizations, playing an important role in this milieu until his death.
Courtesy of the National Gallery of Canada - http://cybermuse.gallery.ca/cybermuse/search/bio_e.jsp?iartistid=2326
Marcel Gromaire (1892-1971)
Marcel Gromaire was a French artist who painted many works on social subjects, and is often associated with Social Realism. Gromaire, whose father was an educator in Paris, was born in Noyelles-sur-Sambre, France. He studied classically at Douai, then continued his studies in Paris, receiving his Baccalauréat in Law in 1909, a judiciary career path he quickly abandoned. He frequented studios in Montparnasse. In 1912, he performed his military service in Lille when the war began and spent the next six years in the army and was wounded in 1916 in the Battle of the Somme.
Gromaire returned to Paris, working in a Paris studio, his subject matter of rich dark ochers and browns in his paintings in an ordered wealth of textural sensation when transferring the reality of his studio and its light and contents, onto his canvases. Gromaire used his studio as a standard, a filter; it was more than just a place to paint.
A meeting with the collector, Dr. Girardin, established his career as an artist when he purchased the entirety of the work of Gromaire. When Dr. Girardin died in 1953, the Museum of Modern Art in Paris received 78 oil paintings as well as a collection of watercolors.
In 1933, A retrospective at the Kunsthalle de Baie established the importance of his body of works. In 1937, his work was exhibited by orders of the State at Paris Exposition Internationale. From 1939-1944, he resided at Aubusson and participated in the renewal of the tapestry movement with Jean Lurcat. He was named a professor at the École nationale supérieure des arts décoratifs from 1950 until 1962.
Gromaire relocated to the United States and became a member of the Jury for the Carnegie Prize, which went to Jacques Villon that year. The prize was awarded to him in 1952. In 1954, he was made commander of the Légion d’honneur and two years later, obtained the National Guggenheim prize and in 1958, The Grand Prix National des Arts. He died in Paris.
Vincent Van Gogh (1853-1890)
Vincent Willem van Gogh was a Dutch post-Impressionist painter born in 1853. His work is celebrated for its rough beauty, bold color and influence on 20th-century art.
Van Gogh began to draw as a child, and he continued to draw throughout the years that led up to his decision to become an artist. He did not begin painting until his late twenties, completing many of his best-known works during the last two years of his life. In just over a decade, he produced more than 2,100 artworks, which included self portraits, landscapes, still lifes, portraits and paintings of cypresses, wheat fields and sunflowers.
Van Gogh spent his early adulthood working for a firm of art dealers, traveling between The Hague, London and Paris, after which he taught for a time in England. In 1885, he painted his first major work The Potato Eaters with a color palette of somber tones. In March 1886, he moved to Paris and discovered the French Impressionists. In the south of France he was influenced by the strong light and his work became brighter in vivid color. He developed his highly recognizable style that became fully realized during his stay in Arles in 1888.
The extent to which his mental health affected his painting has been a subject of speculation since his death. Vincent van Gogh died aged 37 from a gunshot wound.
Diego Rivera (1886-1957)
Born in Guanajuato, Mexico in 1886. Rivera studied art in Europe and was greatly influenced by Picasso, Cézanne, and Giotto. He was Mexico’s most renowned muralist when, at the urging of Ralph Stackpole, in 1930 he was brought to San Francisco to paint murals in the Stock Exchange and Art Institute. While there he had his first American solo exhibition at the CPLH. He also painted a small fresco for Mrs. Sigmund Stern which is now in Stern Hall at UC Berkeley. Rivera returned to Mexico in 1931 to complete mural decorations in the Palacio Nacional. He painted murals in the Detroit Art Institute (1933) and Rockefeller Center in NYC (1934). In 1940 he was again in San Francisco to paint a 1,650 square foot fresco for the GGIE entitled Culture of the Americas. This fresco is now installed in the foyer of the Little Theater at San Francisco City College. After the GGIE he returned to Mexico and died there on Nov. 25, 1957. Although his greatest inspiration was from the work of Giotto, his work is rooted in Aztec and Mayan forms. In: SF General Hospital; Mexican Museum (SF); Mills College (Oakland); SFMA; CPLH.
Edan Hughes, “Artists in California, 1786-1940”
NY Times, 11-25-1957 (obituary).
Thomas Blinks (1860-1912)
Thomas Blinks was born in Maidstone, Kent in 1853. He showed interest in becoming an artist at an early age, but his father, who was a butcher, felt it was a poor profession and insisted he find another trade. Blinks worked briefly as an apprentice to a tailor, but eventually pursued art. It is unknown if he ever had any formal training, but he did have a strong natural talent for portraying the anatomy and action animals.
By 1877, Thomas Blinks lived in Hawkshurst near Cranbrook, Kent with his wife Louisa. They had three children and eventually moved to London. It was stated by Blinks that he studied the movement of horses at Tattershalls, an equestrian auctioneer, but it is unclear when in his career he spent time there. It is possible he began his keen observation of sporting dogs and horses in Kent on the farms and at hunts. He may have spent time at Tattershall after his move to London given the proximity.
Thomas Blinks was a master painter of horse and sporting dogs during the Victorian era. Blinks’ works were first seen in London at the Dudley Gallery in 1881, then at the Royal British Academy in 1882. He exhibited at the Royal Academy and Royal Institute of Oil Painters the following year. His hunting and racing pictures were frequently exhibited at the Royal Academy. Paintings by Thomas Blinks were well received by the public and by his peers. He was never commissioned by Queen Victoria or the consort Prince Albert, who were both active supporters of the arts and interested of sporting subjects as was the fashion. But Thomas Blinks was commissioned by King George V, Victoria’s successor, to paint him on a hunt. This no doubt helped advance his status as an artist. His career may have advanced further, if the president of the Royal Academy had not spoken out against sporting subjects in painting.
Thomas Blinks was talented at capturing the movement of animals, showing the working of muscles and capturing the character of dogs in the field and horses in action. Blinks worked in oil and watercolour and he is admired still today for his freedom of brushwork and polished finish. Many of his works are large scale to suit the high ceilings of aristocratic homes of the day.
Thomas Blinks’ paintings can be seen in the private collections of Queen Elizabeth II, the Leicester Museum and Art Gallery and Preston Manor, Brighton. Eighty of Blinks’ works were reproduced in print form, some by the pre eminent engraver Joseph Bishop Pratt.
Gifford Beal (1879-1956)
Gifford Beal was born in New York City in 1879. His father was landscape painter. At the age of thirteen, Gifford Beal began studying art at William Merritt Chase’s Shinnecock School of Art. As he grew older, his father encouraged him to go to college. Beal graduated from Princeton and then continued his art education at the Art Students’ League, studying with impressionist landscape painter Henry Ward Ranger and Boston academic painter Frank Vincent DuMond. Eventually Beal became President of the Art Students League. He remained in this position for fourteen years. All his training paid off and received recognition in the New York Art World very early on in his career.
He was known for Hudson Valley landscapes, streets, coasts, flowers and marine scenes. Gifford Beal’s style was heavily influenced by Chase and Child Hassam. In the 1940’s, Beal made a significant change to his style becoming more free with his brush. It is said the change was influenced by artist Raoul Dufy. To Gifford Beal, it was important that his work be “fundamentally sound and aesthetically pleasing.” His work can be found in many museums and public collections across the United States.v Gifford Beal died in 1956. He was seventy five years old.
Salvador Dali (1904-1989)
Born in Figueres, Spain in 1904, Salvador Dali is known for his technical skill as a painter and the shocking quality of his imagination. His pioneering spirit was also accompanied by a reverence of tradition and a will for continuity. Dali consistently depicted the landscape of his homeland, one that became synonymous with the landscape of the imagination and of dreams. He forged in his long career a remarkable body of work, and his life demonstrates the richness of living creatively in every aspect of one’s existence.
Salvador Dali was the only surviving male child of a prosperous Catalan family that divided its time between Figueres and the coastal village of Cadaqués. Dali attended a prominent art academy in Madrid. From his earliest years as an artist he exhibited his work widely, lectured, and wrote. In 1929 he joined the Surrealist movement becoming its most visible and controversial member. That year, Dali met Gala Eluard when she visited him with her husband, poet Paul Eluard. Subsequently, Gala became Dali’s wife, his muse, primary model, and life-long obsession.
Dali broke with the Surrealist movement in 1939. He and Gala fled Europe in 1940 and spent the war years in the United States where he revised his strategy toward art, rejecting modernism and connecting with other traditions of art. In 1947 Dali and Gala returned to Spain and thereafter divided their time between Europe and the United States. In 1974, Dali organized a museum of his own collection of art, the Teatro-Museo Dali in Figueres. After the death of Gala in 1982, Dali’s health declined. His final years were spent in seclusion at his museum. Salvador Dali died on January 23, 1989.
The Dali Museum
Marsden Hartley (1877-1943)
Charles Demuth (1883-1935)
A painter of allegorical figurative watercolors including a vaudeville series and also contemporary floral studies, Charles Demuth was also a major exponent of Precisionism as well as more poetic styles that emphasized emotional response to art. Much of his work is rooted in French modernism including Fauvism. He painted with oil and tempera as well as watercolor and completed about 750 paintings and 350 drawings during his lifetime.
Demuth was born in Lancaster, Pennsylvania and kept close ties to his hometown, although he moved in highly sophisticated circles in New York, Provincetown, and Paris and delighted in the bohemian lifestyle he found in these places.
He had a childhood of much isolation and illness and throughout his life, had a sense of being an outsider.
He first studied at the Drexel Institute in Philadelphia and after a trip to Europe in 1904, became a student of Thomas Anschutz at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts until 1911. Then he went to Paris for two years and began his pursuit of modern art, becoming associated with avant-garde literary persons including Gertrude and Leo Stein and modernist painters Matisse, Braque, Derain, Dufy and Vlaminck. He attended the Academie Julian, Academie Colarossi and Academie Moderne.
His early paintings were simple floral and figure studies in watercolor with shifting tonalities of color, and he also did watercolor illustrations for books and plays including works by Henry James and Emile Zola.
Returning to America in 1914, he became one of the modernist artists associated with Alfred Stieglitz and was also among the group of intellectuals around Marcel Duchamp and the Dada Movement. He and Duchamp spent much time in Harlem jazz clubs and Greenwich Village bars, and he loved the life of the big city libertine. A close friend was Marsden Hartley, and they went to Bermuda together in 1916 and 1917.
From 1915, much of his effort was devoted to figurative subjects, and a recurring theme was acrobatic figures, which reflected an early 20th century American interest. His art reputation was established with his New York solo exhibition in 1915 at the George Daniel Gallery. Shortly after that he experimented with Cubism, and his first Precisionist work was done in 1919. Much of his Precisionist subject matter was the empty-seeming urban landscape, barren of human emotion and reflective of post-World War I disillusionment.
During the 1920s, his work became increasingly realistic and more focused on line and shape and color. He suffered from diabetes and turned to small-scale still lifes and floral studies that, unlike his urban studies, were loaded with personal feeling. Between 1924 and 1929, he did many portraits of friends with objects representing their lives. Special friends were Georgia O’Keeffe, John Marin, and Marsden Hartley.
Michael David Zellman, 300 Years of American Art
Matthew Baigell, Dictionary of American Art
Peter Falk, Who Was Who in American Art
Arthur Dove (1880-1946)
Born in Canandaigua, upstate New York, Arthur Dove is credited as being the first innovative abstract painter in America. Many of his abstractions showed obvious Oriental influence and were derived from landscape and organic subjects with color used freely and calligraphic line emphasizing energy or force. Generally his method was to make watercolor sketches outdoors and later oil paintings in his studio.
He also made assemblages from a variety of materials including aluminum, tin, copper, glass, wood, fabric, and found objects. Some were three dimensional like sculpture, and he was a meticulous craftsman. He was named for the presidential and vice presidential candidates in 1880 and grew up in a conventional upper middle class family in Geneva, New York where his father was a brickmaker and contractor. Dove started drawing at an early age and began painting at age nine at the encouragement of a neighbor, Newton Weatherby, who was a naturalist and truck farmer as well as amateur painter and musician. Weatherby inspired a life-long love of nature in Dove, which was evident in his artwork.
His independent spirit was evident early when at the age of twelve he resigned from the Presbyterian Church for refusing to allow an atheist a right to his opinion. He attended Hobart College for two years and Cornell University, where he studied pre law to please his father but became increasingly interested in art. A creator of humorous caricatures, he was yearbook editor and was guided towards illustration by an instructor. After graduating in 1903, he was a commercial illustrator in New York, working for “Harpers,” “Scribners,” “Collier’s,” “Life,” and the “Saturday Evening Post.” He married a hometown friend, lived comfortably in the city, and painted in his spare time, but his growing desire to paint led to their going to Paris.
There he met Alfred Maurer, who was to be his best friend for the remainder of his life, and through him moved in art circles that included Matisse, Picasso, and Cezanne. His style at that time was impressionist, but he and Maurer worked to reduce impressionism to larger areas of pure color in the manner of Matisse and Fauvism.
He returned to New York in 1909 and took up illustrating again briefly, but through contact with Alfred Steiglitz, exhibited with Steiglitz’ Gallery 291 of avant-garde artists. The American public’s first exposure to Dove was in a 1912 exhibit at Gallery 291 and shocked many viewers who regarded him as a deranged modernist. Steiglitz friendship and encouragement proved extremely valuable to Dove who also moved in avant-garde art circles with John Sloan, William Glackens, Robert Henri, Alfred Maurer, and Georgia O’Keeffe.
Struggling financially, he moved his young family to Westport, Connecticut and with little family support for his career, his first marriage broke up. He later married Helen Torr (Reds), and they lived frugally on houseboats and as caretakers in private homes. Although critics began to recognize his work, the public did not respond during his lifetime, and few of his works sold. In 1933, he inherited the meagre estate of his parents and moved to Geneva for five years where he tried to make a living as a farmer but had little success. Bad health forced him in 1938 to an inlet on Long Island Sound, and he lived there the remaining six years of his life as a semi-invalid with painting as his only activity. With the help of his wife who held his hand with the brush, he was highly productive doing paintings with loose wash-like qualities. His cheerful personality was reflected in the tranquil mood of his work. He died of a heart attack in November, 1946.
Matthew Baigell, Dictionary of American Art
Michael David Zellman, 300 Years of American Art
Adolph Gottlieb (1903-1974)
Born in New York City in 1903, Adolph Gottlieb was a founding member of The Ten, a group devoted to abstract art with whom he was active for about five years. He became a major exponent of Abstract Expressionism whose painting style is linked to Marc Rothko, Clyfford Still and Barnet Newman. A major theme in Gottlieb’s painting is the challenge to humans to resolve dualities within the universe, the pressure of opposites: male and female, chaos and order, creation and destruction, order and chaos.
His career is described as having four phases: Pictographs (1940s), Grids and Imaginary Landscapes (1951 to 1957), Bursts (1957 to 1974) and Imaginary Landscapes (1960s). Although he lived primarily in New York City and was one of the few Abstract Expressionists born in that city, time spent in Arizona and Provincetown, Massachusetts had a marked influence on him. Gottlieb studied at the Art Students League with Social Realists John Sloan and Robert Henri, but left abruptly in 1921 for Paris where he enrolled at the Academie de la Grand Chaumiere. Returning in 1923, he lived in New York and developed an interest in primitive sculpture.
He was a WPA mural artist and painted a mural in 1939 for the Post Office in Yerington, Nevada. From 1937 to 1939, he was in Tucson, Arizona, which influenced his subsequent “pictograph” series that occupied him the remainder of his life. The pictographs involved compartmentalized grid divisions of the canvas, primitive iconography and imaginary landscapes and were intended “to evoke mythological responses” (Baigell 141). For him, the time in the Arizona desert was a time of transition from expressionist landscapes to highly personal still lifes of simple desert items such as gourds and peppers. From November 13, 1999 to January 9, 2000, the Tucson Museum of Art held an exhibition, Adolph Gottlieb and the West”, sponsored by the Adolph and Esther Gottlieb Foundation. The publicity described it as “dedicated to more than 50 works from the seminal Abstract Expressionists little-known 1937-1938 stay in the Arizona desert.”
In the early 1950s, he designed a stained-glass exterior, 1,350 square feet, for the Milton Steinberg Memorial Center in New York City. His work was religious in tone but not specifically dogmatic.
Matthew Baigell, Dictionary of American Art
Peter Falk, Who Was Who in American Art
Jessie Benton Evans Gray, exhibition informaton of the Tucson Museum of Art
Gustave Caillebotte (1848-1894)
Gustave Caillebotte, was born in 1848. He was a French painter and a generous patron of the impressionists, whose own works, until recently, were neglected.
He was an engineer by profession, but also attended the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris. In 1874 he met Degas, Monet and Renoir and helped organize the first impressionist exhibition in Paris the same year. He participated in later shows and painted some 500 works in a more realistic style than that of his friends. Caillebotte’s most intriguing paintings are those of the broad, new Parisian boulevards. The boulevards were painted from high vantage points.
From 1876 to 1882 he took part in five of the exhibitions of the Impressionists. His portraits and landscapes may have been influenced by Degas but his views of Paris and realistic scenes of working-class life are highly personal in expression. In his will Caillebotte left his collection of sixty-five Impressionist works to the state, which rejected it. After three years of negotiations and a campaign in the press, thirty-eight of the pictures were accepted. It was not until 1928 that these works entered the Louvre.
John Leslie Breck (1860-1899)
John Leslie Breck was an early exponent of the “new painting”, avant-garde style, of Impressionism. He is considered the American painter responsible for introducing impressionist painting to the United States in 1890. Born at sea on a clipper ship in the South Pacific, he had a father who was a captain in the U.S. Navy.
Breck grew up in the Boston and received his art training at the Munich Royal Academy, learning rapid brushstroke and dark Tonalism. In 1886, he studied at the Academie Julian in Paris, and was one of the important Impressionist artists at the art colony in Giverny, France. He was very close with Monet.
While in Giverny, he liked to paint by moonlight. He used the moonlight theme to Venice as well. It was said at the time that his style marked the turning of a new chapter in painting. Breck’s achievements as an American artist constituted some of the earliest fully realized impressionistic paintings in this country. His works influenced the positive movement of Impressionism that occurred in the Boston area in the late 1880s and 1890s.
Breck’s close association with Monet can be seen in pictures Breck completed of Monet’s houseboat and garden, which were shown in Breck’s first one-man art show in Boston, in 1890, at the St. Botolph Club, the year of his return to America. From that time on, he created some of his most memorable works, many of them focusing on sites along the Massachusetts coastline.
He died in 1899 at the age of thirty-nine, but his death was rumored to have been a suicide. His tragic death occurred just as he was coming into his own as an artist, breaking free of the stylistic influences of both his academic training and Monet’s Impressionism.
William H. Bailey (b.1930)
Born in Council Bluffs, Iowa in 1930, Bailey had a early talent for drawing and had the opportunity to study with Josef Albers at Yale University. Known for his beautiful still-life paintings, Bailey’s objects are in a shallow spaces against a flat backgrounds of color, which give them a very modern look.
From 1962 to 1969, he taught at Indiana University. In 1969, William H. Bailey was professor of art at Yale University. His work is included in the collections of the Whitney Museum, the Museum of Modern Art, the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts and the Joseph Hirshhorn Muesum. He was the recipient of a Guggenheim Fellowship and was elected to the American Academy and Institute of Arts and Letters.
The following was written and submitted by Jean Ershler Schatz, artist and researcher from Laguna Woods, California:
Truly original art is often praised in its own time with a kind of misperception or misunderstanding of its deep qualities. William Bailey is frequently characterized by curators, reviewers and even by some of his collectors as one of the country’s leading realists. Yet his remarkable still lifes and nudes, distinguished by an unmistakable style and a characteristic meditative searching for paricular moments of aesthetic challenge, are in fact more attuned to modernist concerns than to mere recording of contemporary urban life.
From the very beginning Bailey’s still lifes were “abstract” in several ways. They have never been done from an array of objects on a tabletop in the studio, but are composed on the canvas itself. It is not the banal literal presence of a set of objects that these paintings call up, but rather their metaphoric activity-their figurativeness that no mere rendering, however stylish, mannered or elegant, could establish. Bailey prefers the term figurative rather than realistic, which he feels is too easily going back to illustration.
Modest in scale and completely unrhetorical, his pictures seem European - the work, perhaps, of a less mature Balthus, minus the overtones of perverse eroticism. Their strength lies partly in the extreme discipline of organization; he is a perfectionist.
Sources include: An Extreme and Abstract Clarity by John Hollander, Artnews magazine
Time magazine, January 31, 1972
William Bailey, An American Classic by Hilton Kramer, Art & Antiques
Petrus van Schendel (1806-1870)
Petrus Van Schendel (1806-1870)
Born in Terheyden, North Brabant on 21 April 1806, Petrus Van Schendel studied at the Antwerp Academy under Van Bree. He went on to work for 2 years before returning to Rotterdam where he was to live between 1832 and 1838. He is known for his illustrations of nocturnal scenes he loved to explore the effect of soft light on busy scenes, and he captured many paintings of nocturnal Dutch markets. He was nicknamed Monsieur Chandelle in France, possibly a corruption of his original name.
Before he became a scene painter, he did portraits of the rich in Rotterdam, The Hague and Brussels. While he was in Brussels in 1845, he painted and exhibited market scenes with light effects. He was an instant hit, winning 3 awards from different art institutions. This was quite a feat in a Europe that was already crawling with good artists. He worked on many paintings, depicting scenes from the New Testament and even illustrating cards.
He worked on market scenes by candlelight, sitting long hours by lamp light or candle light so that he could capture a scene as he wanted it. This was not lost on those who appreciated his art it was a unique way of painting that no one else was known for at the time.
He was more than just an artist he was also interested in mechanics and is one of the significant contributors to the history of the locomotive. Today, his works can be seen at Amsterdams Historisch Museum, the Stedelijk Museum, the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, the Groninger Museum, Groningen and the Museum Boymans-van Beuningen in Rotterdam where enthusiasts will find the Market in Friesland by Moonlight, St Jerome and Kitchen Scene (1834), Evening Market in Antwerp and Fish Seller (1843), Vegetable Market (1852) and Return From The Hunt 1839.
Emile Munier (1840-1895)
Emile Munier (1840-1895)
Emile Munier is best known for his illustrations of childhood innocence. Born in Paris in 1840, he lived there with his family hoping to become an upholsterer like his father. It turned out however that Emile and his two brothers had a knack for art all three spent time studying at Gobelins. While there, he was to become close to his professor, Abel Lucas, and he later married Abels daughter Henrietta. She was to die after giving birth to their first son in 1867.
This saw a turn in Muniers life who all this time had been an upholsterer. He started painting and devoted all his time between his son and his art. He started teaching adults who wanted to learn how to paint 3 times a week, and slowly his fame started to bud.
In 1872, he married one of his students Sargine Augrand and they continued to live in Paris. In 1885, he did several paintings which he exhibited at the Paris Salon. One of them was the Trois Amis which was of a girl sitting on a bed and playing with kittens. It was the beginning of his success. This painting was copied and illustrated numerous times and eventually, Pears Soap bought the rights to use it in their advertising. He went on to do more illustrations for them while he continued to paint and sell his works.
His fame as a painter of childhood innocence with pets crossed to America and his paintings were acquired by famous collectors like Chapman H. Hyams and his wife. He also did portraits of the rich and famous at this time.
Another of his famous works is the L’esprit de la chute d’eau, a nude nymph that drew much attention. In 1895, after his painting La jeune fille et le panier de chatons, he fell ill and died before long. His works are still highly regarded in the art world and are held by few art collectors.
Edgar Degas (1834-1917)
Edgar Degas was born on July 10, 1834 in Paris. He studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in 1855. His early work was primarily historical subject paintings and portraits, influenced by Ingres. He soon began painting theatrical subjects and dancers, of which he has become so well known. The special talent of Edgar Degas lay in his ability to find unfamiliar beauty in the passing scene.
He took an active role in the first Impressionist show of 1874 and in 1881 he showed his first sculpture. He never married, but he did have a circle of female friends and confidants, including the American painter Mary Cassatt, among his intimate friends. Degas is often identified as an Impressionist. Technically, Degas differs from the Impressionists in that, as art historian Frederick Hartt says, he “never adopted the Impressionist color fleck”, and he continually belittled their practice of painting en plein air. Degas passed away on September 27, 1917, at the age of 83.
Cooper Colin Campbell (1856-1937)
Colin Campbell Cooper was born in Philadelphia in 1856. He was an accomplished painter, known for his impressionistic street scenes, landscapes, and architectural subjects. He studied under Thomas Eakins at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts. He traveled south in 1914 through Annapolis, Richmond, Charleston, and Savannah. In the later part of his life, he focused on West Coast subject matter and espoused The California Style* of watercolor painting, a bold, aggressive new oil-painting look to a medium that had traditionally been used more modestly. Very few, if any, artists at the time were employing this technique in the manner that Cooper was.
Cooper made the first of many trips to Europe in 1885. He studied at the Academie Julien and the Ecole Delecluse in Paris. Cooper and his first wife, Emma Lampert, were aboard the RMS Carpathian and assisted with the rescue of survivors from the Titanic. Several of his paintings document the rescue.
He was a member of numerous associations including the California Art Club*, Salmagundi Club*, and the National Academy of Design*. His work is in many museums including the Cincinnati Art Museum, the St. Louis Museum, and the Oakland Museum.
Alfred James Munnings (1878-1959)
Alfred Munnings was born in 1878 at Mendham, Suffolk. At fourteen he was apprenticed to a Norwich printer, designing and drawing advertising posters for the next six years. He also studied at the Norwich School of Art. After his apprenticeship ended, he became a full time painter. He had no sight in his right eye, but it did not deflect his determination to paint, and in 1899 two of his pictures were shown at the Royal Academy Summer Exhibition. He painted rural scenes, frequently of subjects such as Gypsies and horses. He was also associated with the Newlyn School of painters.
Sir Alfred James Munnings was known as one of England’s finest painters of horses. . He used his art to depict horses involving in hunting and he painted racehorses. Engaged by Lord Beaverbrook’s Canadian War Memorials Fund, he earned several prestigious commissions after the Great War that made him wealthy. Munnings’s prolific career, spanning over 60 years, brought him honor, with election to the Presidency of the Royal Academy in 1944, a Knighthood in 1945, and a personal award from the Sovereign in 1947, when he was created Knight of the Royal Victorian Order.
Alfred Sisley (1839-1899)
Alfred Sisley was born in Paris in 1839, the son of a well off British dealer established in Paris. His father sent him to London, where he worked in the family business from 1857 to 1861, but Sisley intends to be a painter rather than a dealer. In spite of his father’s wishes he entered the School of Fine Arts of Paris in 1862, and also the workshop of Charles Gleyre, where he became friendly with Auguste Renoir, Claude Monet and Frederic Bazille.
After the 1863 exhibition at the Salon des Refusés where Monet’s paintings and those works similar to Monet’s received the description of Impressionists from a critic, Sisley left Paris with Monet, and they lived in the suburbs and painted together. By 1870, his painting style incorporated the short brushstrokes of Impressionism, but were different from Monet’s by depicting realistic images rather than in Monet’s images diffused into light and atmospherics. Sisley painted cloud-filled skies, water, snowscenes and foliage changing colors with the season
Throughout his painting career, Sisley was principally a landscape painter, notable, during a time while others Impressionists were concerning themselves with the human figure. Sisley did not concern himself with theory. Alfred Sisley spent the last years of his life in simplicity and died in 1899.
Lovis Corinth (1858-1925)
Lovis Corinth was born Franz Heinrich Louis in 1858 in Tapiau, in Prussia. He was a German painter and printmaker whose mature work realized a synthesis of impressionism and expressionism. Corinth moved to Berlin in 1900, and had a one-man exhibition at a gallery owned by Paul Cassirer. In 1902 at the age of 43, he opened a school of painting for women. Corinth, like many artists of his time, eventually came to earn a good living from his portraits, and his oeuvre included a broad range of subjects, from landscapes, nudes and still- lives to genre pieces.
Lovis Corinth studied in Paris and Munich, joined the Berlin Secession group, later succeeding Max Liebermann as the group’s president. His early work was naturalistic in approach. Corinth was initially antagonistic towards the expressionist movement, but after a stroke in 1911 his style loosened and took on many expressionistic qualities.
In 1925, he traveled to the Netherlands to view the works of his favorite Dutch masters. He caught pneumonia and died in Zandvoort.
Jean Beraud (1849-1936)
Jean Béraud was born in 1849 in Saint Petersburg. He was a French Impressionist painter and commercial artist noted for his paintings of Parisian life during the Belle Époque.
His father was a sculptor and after the death of Béraud’s father, the family moved to Paris. Béraud was in the process of being educated as a lawyer until the occupation of Paris during the Franco-Prussian war in 1870. He became a student of Léon Bonnat, and in 1872 he exhibited his paintings at the Salon. He exhibited with the Society of French Watercolorists at the 1889 World’s Fair in Paris. Jean Béraud painted scenes of Parisian life during the Belle Époque period. He received the Légion d’honneur in 1894.
Béraud’s paintings often included truth-based humour and mockery of late 19th century Parisian life, along with frequent appearances of biblical characters in then contemporary situations. Paintings such as Mary Magdalene in the House of the Pharisees aroused controversy when exhibited, because of these themes. Late in his career, Béraud dedicated less time to his own painting but worked on numerous exhibition committees, including the Salon de la Société Nationale.
Felix Vallotton (1865-1925)
Felix Vallotton was a Franco-Swiss painter of portraits, nudes, interiors and landscapes, wood-engraver*, lithographer*, sculptor and writer. Born in Lausanne, Switzerland, he went to Paris in 1882 and studied at the Académie Julian* under Jules Lefebvre.
He repaired and copied Old Master* paintings, especially admiring Hans Holbein, Gaspard Poussin and Jean-Auguste Ingres. From 1891 to 1897, he concentrated mainly on wood-engraving, primarily portraits and scenes from everyday life treated with sardonic humour. He also made illustrations for the Revue Blanche, Cris de Paris, etc. and for various books, including Jules Renard’s La Maitresse 1896 and Remy de Gourmont’s Le Livre des Masques 1896.
He had friendship with Edouard Vuillard, Pierre Bonnard, Roussel and exhibited several times with the Nabis* group. He married Gabrielle Rodrigues-Henriques of the Bernheim family of art dealers in 1899, and took French nationality in 1900.
His first one-man exhibition was with Vuillard at the Galerie Bernheim-Jeune, Paris, 1903. He worked much at Honfleur and from 1920 in the South of France, especially at Cagnes. He died in Paris. His novel La Vie Meurtrière was published posthumously.
Max Herman Pechstein (1881-1955)
Hermann Max Pechstein was born in Eckerback, Germany, and studied at the School of Applied Arts and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts in Dresden. In 1905, he was awarded the Saxon State Prize for painting. The following year, he met Erich Heckel and joined the Die Brücke group in Dresden.
Pechstein traveled in 1908 to Paris, where he met the Fauve artists and exhibited with the Société Anonyme. In 1909, Pechstein joined the Berlin Sezession and exhibited with them the same year. After the war, Pechstein became one of the most active of the politicized Expressionist artists. During the early days of the Weimar Republic, he founded the Novembergruppe (along with Tappert, Klein and others), became a member of the Arbeitsrat für Kunst, and produced posters and illustrations for the Werbedienst (Publicity Office) of the provisional government.
During the 1920’s he exhibited widely, and in 1932 he received the State Prize of the German Government. Pechstein was forbidden by the National Socialists to exhibit in Germany after 1933, and he was dismissed from his teaching position. In 1937 his works were confiscated by the Nazi’s and labeled “degenerate,” and six of his paintings were included in the “Degenerate Art” exhibition.
John Henry Twachtman (1853-1902)
John Henry Twachtman (1853-1902)
Born in Cincinnati, Ohio, John Twachtman became a leading Impressionist and Tonalist painter of atmospheric landscapes of the late 19th century. He was a founding member of Ten American Painters, a group that broke away from the disciplines of the Academy of Design in New York City. Art historian William Gerdts described Twachtman as “the most consistently admired of all the Impressionists painters until the denunciation of Impressionism in American in the wake of more avant-garde developments.(108).
He first studied at the Ohio Mechanics Institute, and in 1874 began to paint with Frank Duveneck, an artist of the Munich School of direct, impasto brushwork, often in dark tones. In 1875, Twachtman went to Europe and studied at the Royal Academy in Munich and in 1877, went with Duveneck and William Merritt Chase to Venice. A year later, he taught at Duveneck’s school in Florence, and in 1881 went to Holland with Julian and John Weir.
His style changed from the dark sombre tones of the Munich School in 1883, when he went to Paris and studied at the Academie Julian with Jules Lefebvre and Louis Boulanger and became influenced by James Whistler’s Tonalism and the French Impressionists. From that time, his style was characterized by low-key gray and green tones, almost monochromatic, and smooth texture. In the 1890s, his paintings became lighter, and as he got older, his canvases became even brighter and more impressionistic, and he painted a number of winter scenes. He purchased a 17-acre farm near Greenwich, Connecticut where he did many landscapes dealing more with the essence of nature than the reality. He also taught summer classes at Gloucester and did some illustration work for Scribners.
In 1893, he won a Silver Medal from the World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago, and in 1894 was commissioned by Charles Carey of Buffalo, New York to do a series of paintings of Niagara Falls, which was quite a change to his usual subjects of painting the woods of Connecticut. The next year Major William Wadsworth of Genesco, New York commissioned him to do a series of four paintings of the western half of Yellowstone Park in Wyoming. Arriving in September of 1895, he was so taken with the scenery and its contrast to his own environment that he did extra paintings for himself.
Michael David Zellman, Three Hundred Years of American Art
William Gerdts, American Impressionism
Peter Hassrick, Drawn to Yellowstone
Henri Toulouse Lautrec (1864-1901)
Henri Toulouse-Lautrec became one of France’s most prominent Post-Impressionist painters and capturing the night life of part of the city, was described as “the soul of Montmartre.” He also did a number of illustrations for the magazine Le Rire during the 1890s’s.
Toulouse-Lautrec was born in Albi, France, in the mid-Pyranees region. He was the first child of a Count and Countess whose aristocratic lineage dated back over a thousand years but whose fortune had collapsed before he was born. At birth, they gave him the full name of Henri Marie Raymond de Toulouse-Lautrec Monfa. The parents were first cousins, and credited to inbreeding were the many birth defects that Henri suffered including an osteoporosis condition that left him with weak bones that did not heal properly when his legs were fractured when he was ages 13 and 14. In adulthood, he was only four feet and six inches in height, although his torso was fully developed. Growing up, he was unable to participate in normal activities, so he turned to art expression.
Toulouse-Lautrec moved to Paris in 1882 in order to learn from artists by working with them in their studios. He was especially impressed with Impressionist painter and sculptor Edgar Degas. Lautrec’s subjects were primarily the bohemian world of Montmartre, the city’s quarter where he lived and the area that had a mix that included starving’ artists, actors, actresses, singers and dancers such as La Goulue who created the Can Can and performed at the Moulin Rouge. It was also the location of racetracks, dancehalls and many bars and brothels, likely the places where he, a frequent visitor, got the syphilis that along with excessive alcohal consumption added to his health problems and caused his death. He partied and sketched the nightlife, and in the daytime, converted his sketches into paintings and lithographs.
Shortly before he died on September 9, 1901at the age of 36, he was put in a sanatorium after his highly protective mother was unable to keep him at home. He is buried in Malromé at his family’s estate, and he is buried in Verdelais, Gironde, close to his death place. The Comtesse Adéle Toulouse-Lautrec, his mother, and his dealer, Maurice Joyant, worked hard after his death to keep his name alive and promote his artwork. Because of their efforts, a museum in Albi was built in his honor. Two movies titled Moulin Rouge are about his life.
WebMuseum, Paris http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/toulouse-lautrec/
artelino-Art Auctions: http://www.artelino.com/articles/toulouse_lautrec.asp
Anton Faistauer (1887-1930)
Anton Faistauer (1887-1930)
Andy Warhol (1928-1987)
Andy Warhol is one of the most influential artists of the second half of the twentieth century. He was originally born Andrew Warhola in 1928 in Pittsburgh, although there has been quite a bit of confusion about the actual date. According to his two older brothers he was born on August 6. His surname change from Warhola to Warhol was actually due to an error by Glamour Magazine who mistakenly published a drawing of his under the name Andy Warhol, leaving the a off his surname by mistake. No one is quite sure why, but from that point on he chose to use this new moniker and refer to himself as Andy Warhol. He died on February 22, 1987 at New York Hospital from complications following gallbladder surgery. He was reportedly recovering well before suddenly suffering a cardiac arrhythmia.
Andy Warhol is considered the founder and the most relevant figure in the Pop Art movement. After graduating from Carnegie Institute of Technology in 1949, he moved to New York and quickly began to gain fame as a commercial artist. He first began to have exhibitions of his works in the 1950s. He continued doing ads and illustrations and by 1955 was already the most famous commercial artist in New York. He was also one of the early pioneers in the development of a technique known as silk screening. It was this technique that enabled him to produce a series of repetitive images, and he then started to paint different iconic American images such as Coca Cola bottles, dollar bills, and arguably his most famous works, Campbells soup cans. He began by recreating cartoon characters and advertisements, although these early paintings were still hand painted and looked as such. His first solo pop art exhibition was in 1962. It was around this time that he founded his art studio The Factory. The Factory attracted many eccentrics and artists and he began to refer to them as his Superstars. He also began to make films in the 60s, and in 1965 he began working with the rock band The Velvet Underground, formed by Lou Reed and John Cale, and he famously painted the cover for the bands first album, also title The Velvet Underground. On June 3, 1968, Valerie Solanis entered The Factory and shot Andy Warhol three times in the chest, but he miraculously survived and resumed painting after a long recovery.
The 1970s saw Warhol being criticized for seeking rich patrons who commissioned him to paint portraits for them. Included among his most famous patrons are John Lennon, Diana Ross, and Mick Jagger. Just before his death in 1982, Andy Warhol was starting to enjoy a period of new critical success. While originally criticized for his commercialism, he is now looked upon as one of the most influential artists of all time. He is also famous for being openly homosexual at a time when this was definitely not the norm and was frowned upon by many in the society. Overall, Warhol is most famous for his pop art pieces and he is by far the most famous artist of this particular movement.
To view a video about Andy Warhol, click here.
Rockwell Kent (1882-1971)
Rockwell Kent was an American author, painter, and illustrator who received both fame and infamy during his lifetime. Kent was born to very wealthy parents in Tarrytown, New York in 1882. Kents father then died when he was five years old, and the family then had to live off of the help of their relatives. He learned to speak German perfectly during his childhood, which would later cause him to be accused of being a Nazi spy in 1914. He was forced by his family to study architecture at Columbia University, although he would drop out after two years. He then studied art at the New York School of Art for one year where he was influenced by Robert Henri and the Ash Can School of artists, who were famous for their realistic depictions of the squalid conditions of people living in New York City. Kent is very well known for being one of the earliest American modernist painters, and his reputation for daring brushwork and use of color still follows him to this day. Kent would eventually die in 1971, after achieving notoriety for his work as a painter, author, and illustrator.
Rockwell Kents first private art show was at Clausen Galleries in New York in 1908. His first show opened with much critical acclaim. He would achieve some fame for his art, although it was his associations with such radical journals as The Masses in the period soon afterthat would later result in his getting into trouble again. It was these associations with radicals and his staunch left wing activism that would later result in his being blacklisted by Joe McCarthy and the House of Un-American Activities under the suspicion that he was a communist.
In 1918, Rockwell Kent spent the winter on Fox Island in Alaska, and he would eventually publish a book about his experiences entitled Wilderness A Journey of Quiet Adventure in Alaska. The book would eventually become a best seller and a favorite among New York society. In the 1920s and 1930s, Kent would again achieve fame for his illustrations. In 1930, a three volume edition of Herman Melville’s Moby Dick was published which featured Kents black and white illustrations, which seemed to perfectly capture the feeling and mood of the novel. This version would immediately sell out and revive the once forgotten about novel. In fact, many critics believe it was the success of the Rockwell Kent illustrated version that caused the book to be recognized as a classic today.
To view a video about Rockwell Kent, click here.
LeRoy Neiman (1921-2012)
Leroy Neiman was an accomplished artist and painter. Known for his vibrant color patterns and styles, Neiman specialized in screen prints of musicians and especially athletes. Some of his most famous works revolved around Muhammad Ali, as well as a myriad of sporting events. Leroy was also featured in the Rocky movies, where he would paint both Sylvester Stallone and Carl Weathers. Stallone and Weathers, of course, would play the title roles of Rocky Balboa and Apollo Creed respectively. Neiman would also paint the 1967 showdown between the New York Jets and Miami Dolphins. With his signature mustache and larger than life characters, Leroy was well respected both in the artistic and sporting communities.
Leroy Neiman was born on June 8, 1921, in Saint Paul, Minnesota. He was of Swedish descent, and his parents were named Charles Julius Runquist and Lydia Sophia. While his biological father deserted the family, his mother would later marry his stepfather, John L. Neiman. This prompted Leroy to change his name, while the family moved in and around St. Paul. At an early age, Neiman was fascinated with creative arts. While he had natural talent, he always kept abreast on all the latest artistic styles, genres, and trends. Leroy would carry his art skills into World War II, where he worked as a cook until the end of the conflict. The war, however, opened the doors for Neiman to be recognized as a thriving and exquisite artist. In fact, he utilized his skills to paint several Red Cross backdrops and shows.
Leroy would further his skills by attending the St. Paul School of Art in 1946. He would also attend the prestigious Art Institute of Chicago. After graduating, Neiman would serve on the faculty for the next ten years. During that time, Leroy received countless awards for his paintings and artistic exhibitions. He also cemented his expressionist style, which would later carry over to high-profile painting assignments. His incredible use of color truly left spectators in awe. His brush strokes were also unlike anything seen before.
Leroys passion, however, was painting the top sporting figures and events to the day. This included the Super Bowl, Olympics, Kentucky Derby, and especially professional boxing. Sadly, Leroy Neiman passed away on June 20, 2012.
To view a video about Leroy Neiman, click here.
Kenneth Nunamaker (1890-1957)
Kenneth Nunamaker worked in the art department of the Akron Engraving Company and in his free time, taught himself to paint. He brought sketch pads and canvases to the Ohio countryside where he painted the natural scenes. He moved to Philadelphia in 1918 to become Art Director for Hoedt Studios (1918-1945). He lived in Glenside and then in 1923 bought a home in Center Bridge, residing in Bucks County from 1918 until his death in 1957. Nunamaker painted primarily landscapes, with a particular interest in winter scenes, and was influenced by Edward Redfield. He was skilled in his use of built-up impasto and carefully blended colors. He exhibited at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, the Corcoran Gallery of Art in Washington, the National Academy of Design in New York and the International Gallery in Venice, Italy. From 1945-1957, he operated his own commercial art studio in Philadelphia with Alfred Nunamaker, his son, who also was a painter.
Frederic Edwin Church (1826-1900)
Frederic Edwin Church was born in Brooklyn, NY on October 25, 1876. In May 1848, Church was elected as the youngest Associate of the National Academy of Design and was promoted to Academician the following year. Soon after, he sold his first major work to Hartford’s Wadsworth Atheneum. Church settled in New York, but in the spring each year Church would travel, often by foot, sketching. He returned each winter to paint and to sell his work.
In 1853 and 1857, Church traveled in South America. Two years after returning to the US, Church painted The Heart of the Andes (1859), now in the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Church unveiled the painting to an astonished public in New York City in 1859. The painting’s frame had drawn curtains fitted to it, creating the illusion of a view out a window. The audience sat on benches to view the piece and Church strategically darkened the room, but spotlighted the landscape painting. Church also brought plants from a past trip to South America to heighten the viewers’ experience. The public were charged admission and provided with opera glasses to examine the painting’s details. The work was an instant success. Church eventually sold it for $10,000, at that time the highest price ever paid for a work by a living American artist.
Church showed his paintings at the annual exhibitions of the National Academy of Design, the American Art Union, and at the Boston Art Club, alongside Thomas Cole, Asher Brown Durand, John F. Kensett, and Jasper F. Cropsey. He was also a member of Lyme Art Association, Audubon Artists, Allied American Artists, MacDowell Club and the New York Architectural League. Critics and collectors appreciated the new art of landscape on display, and its progenitors came be to called the Hudson River School.
George Inness (1825-1894)
Born on a farm near Newburgh, New York, George Inness had post-Civil War recognition for paintings that were unique in structure and atmosphere and that turned away from the dramatic, panoramic Hudson River School of painting to a quieter, tonalist expression of poetry in nature. Among the Americans at Barbizon, France, he was the leading painter of that movement of early plein-air landscape painters.
He spent his youth in Newark, New Jersey. His father, trying to discourage his obvious art talent, gave him at age 14 a grocery store to run. But in 1841, at age 16, George left for New York and worked for a map engraver. Impatient with supervision, he started to paint alone and exhibited with the National Academy in 1844. He studied briefly in Brooklyn with Regis Gignoux,a French academic painter, and then went to Europe, something he continued to do often including two trips to Italy and France in the 1850s that much influenced his work.
In 1868, he was elected to the National Academy of Design in New York, and in 1891, was in Northern California where he shared a studio with William Keith and painted with him in Yosemite and Monterey. He and Keith also shared a commitment to the philosophy of Swedenborg. In 1892 and 1893, Inness and his wife traveled in Florida where he painted numerous landscapes.
His painting technique was elaborate. He swiftly stained the surfaces of his canvases, and then sketched on them with charcoal and umber, a process that sometimes took more than a week. He used opaque paint to bring out light and texture and then used glaze to tone it down. The overall result were landscapes that combined tonalism and luminism, great contrast of light and dark.
Much of his life he was poor, and he also had chronic bouts of epilepsy, but in the later part of his life and posthumously, he earned a reputation as one of America’s most talented painters.
Michael David Zellman, 300 Years of American Art
Edan Hughes, Artists in California, 1786-1940
George William Sotter (1979-1953)
George Sotter, though relatively unknown, has recently been called “one of the most locally popular of the Pennsylvania Impressionists.” Born in Pittsburgh on September 25, 1879, Sotter began his art education with local teachers and with Henry G. Keller, who had studied in various German academies. Keller, known for his superb, atmospheric watercolors, taught at the Cleveland School of Art but Sotter studied with him in Pittsburgh. Later Sotter would exhibit between 1903 and 1937 at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts. His works were also shown at the Corcoran Gallery (1912-23), the Carnegie International (1901-26), the National Academy of Design (1913 and 1921), and at the Art Institute of Chicago (1911-27). In 1915, Sotter exhibited four works at the Panama-Pacific International Exposition in San Francisco, where he won a silver medal. Sotter was known mainly as a stained-glass artist; his work may be seen from New York City to Salt Lake City. Around a dozen craftsmen worked under him for these commissions.
Sotter spent the summer of 1902 with Pennsylvania impressionist Edward Redfield in Boothbay Harbor, Maine. Between 1910 and 1919, Sotter taught at the Carnegie Institute of Technology. His paintings often feature large areas of sky filled with clouds and he frequently painted winter night scenes, such as Moonlight, Bucks County (Beacon Hill Fine Art), a perfectly successful depiction of a quiet, moonlit landscape filled with twinkling stars. Star-studded skies, although rare in landscape painting, go back at least to 1600 when they appear in the oeuvre of Adam Elsheimer (1578-1610), a German painter who worked in Rome. The early eighteenth-century series of landscapes dedicated to the planets by the Bolognese master Donato Creti (Pinacoteca Vaticana, Rome) also feature stars, but one might also think of Vincent van Gogh’s famous Starry Night of 1889 (Museum of Modern Art) when searching for precedents. Sotter’s Moonlight, Bucks County has an atmosphere of fantasy and nostalgia that one associates with American illustration and especially with Maxfield Parrish and his evocative, dream-like visions. Sotter was given a special exhibition toward the end of his life (1950) at the Woodmere Gallery in Philadelphia. Sotter died at Holicong (near Doylestown), Pennsylvania in 1953. The Bianco Gallery, Buckingham, PA, has been working on a catalogue raisonné of Sotter’s work.
An American Tradition: Pennsylvania Impressionists. New York: Beacon Hill Fine Art, 1995-96, p. 29; Folk, Thomas, The Pennsylvania Impressionists. Cranbury, NJ: Associated University Presses, 1997, p. 102.
Tamara De Lempicka | Buying And Selling Fine Art | Ackerman’s Fine Art (1898-1980)
Tamara De Lempicka (1898-1980)
Tamara De Lempicka was born in Warsaw in 1898. Born to a rich family, her actual birth name was Maria Gorski. When she was 18, in 1916, she married a solicitor, Tadeusz Lempicki of St. Peterrsburg, and later in 1918, they fled the revolution to Paris. She had started painting as a teenager, with her family paying for her lessons. When she arrived in Paris, she sought out Maurice Denis and then Andre Lohte to continue to give her lessons, and they were eventually the biggest influences in her work.
Right away, she started to work on her painting. She had access to the Paris upper class because of her status, but she signed her paintings as a man, using her husbands last name as she believed they found male artists more credible. In 1925, she was able to hold her first one-man exhibition, and she could no longer pretend to be a man. Her unveiling was well received however she immediately got commissioned to do numerous paintings of the rich and famous of Paris. She was especially known for her nude drawings, which in the standard of the day were considered very erotic.
Tamara de Lempicka was ambitious she wanted to be part of the Parisan elite, and she was using her art to get there. The peak of her career came 10 years later in 1935 but it cost her her first marriage. She soon after married a Hungarian Baron named Kuffner. They immediately moved to Hollywood. She became one of Hollywoods most famous painters, but by then she was doing more and more decorative portraits rather than erotic paintings. Her art eventually declined and she took to travelling between Europe and the United States. Eventually, she moved to Houston, Texas and then later to Mexico where she died in 1980.
To view a video about Tamara De Lempicka, click here.
Carlos Nadal (1917-1998)
Carlos Nadal (1970-1998)
Nadal was born on the 24th of April 1917, in the lively city of Paris. Carlos Nadal, along with his Catalonian parents, moved back to Barcelona, Spain by 1921 due to his fathers illness. The father of Carlos Nadal, Santiago Nadal, owned a decorative painting workshop then. Through lessons in the Caspe Street School, Nadal was first exposed to art and learned the techniques of decorative painting. By the age of thirteen, Carlos Nadal started working as an apprentice in painting decors.
By the year 1936, Carlos Nadal was given a scholarship by the City Council so he could continue his studies at the School of Fine Arts of San Jorge. Nadal worked and studied hard simultaneously. Nonetheless, he was still able to get the highest marks in various classes such as perspective, anatomy, color, landscape and drawing. It was also during this time when a famous Spanish painter, Miguel Farre, had hired Nadal to assist him in his fresco works. One of his art professors, Luis Muntane, had given Nadal his first opportunity to feature his works at the Art Gallery of Barcelona.
After completing his studies at 1945, he moved to Paris. Nadal continued to feature his works in various galleries and it was during his stay in Paris where Nadal became acquainted with Pablo Picasso himself. Nadal also met Flore Joris in Paris, who was soon to be his wife. After marrying, he settled in Brussels. It is said that Nadal greatly developed his skills with the colors and lightings during his stay in Belgium. It was also in Belgium where Carlos Nadal won the Grand Premio de Spa award. Nadals painting style was greatly influenced by the French Fauvist painter, Raoul Dufy. He also added a French Neo-Impressionism touch to his work. Carlos Nadal died at the age of 81 on June 6, 1998.
Walter Ufer (1876-1936)
Born in Germany in 1876 and raised in Kentucky by his German immigrant parents, Walter Ufer began his adulthood with an apprenticeship as a lithographer before becoming a traveling journeyman in Europe. As with many of his fellow artists, he then studied in Germany and trained in Hamburg and Dresden before returning to America. Upon his return to America, he worked in Chicago as a printer and as a teacher for several years. Ufer then returned to Munich in 1911 to expand his artist skills before returning to America and traveling to Taos, New Mexico in 1914.
The personal life of Walter Ufer was tarnished by alcoholism and indebtedness, but he was an active socialist for most of his life. He could be found in the picket lines of striking workers, and his paintings also showed the oppressed nature of the Pueblos in their day to day living situations. Although he did some painting in states surrounding New Mexico, including a sketch of the Grand Canyon in 1905, he lived his life in Taos and his art is primarily known for the work that he did there of the local landscapes and natives.
Ufer joined the Taos Society of Artists, a group formed to garner more interest in the arts and to promote the artwork of its members, around 1917 as an active member. With the travels of the TSA and the promotion of his work, Ufers work had become a success in the commercial and critical world of art by the 1920s. With paintings that portrayed scenes of Native American life, as well as their distinct New Mexico landscapes, Ufers work is known for his portrayal of the Taos Pueblo Indians.
The value of Ufers artwork crashed with the Stock Market and did not increase again until after his death, but Ufer did not allow this to stop him from his calling. Although the last two decades of his painting career were the lowest, he had found a patron by that time that appreciated his work enough to continue painting with a financial safety net. The artwork of Walter Ufer can be found at the Art Institute of Chicago, as well as the Indianapolis Museum of Art and the Museum of Fine Arts in Houston. His prestigious awards included membership in the National Academy of Design in New York and he has earned a permanent place in several museums across the country.
Maximilien Luce (1858-1941)
Born in Paris in 1858, Maximilien Luce began his career as a commercial engraver in the employ of Eugene Froment. His style has been simultaneously ascribed to the schools of Post Impressionism, Pointillism, and Social Realism. Like many artists, he experimented with several of the modern painting techniques and schools developing in France throughout his career. He favored depictions of everyday life of the working class as well as landscapes and seascapes. Luce is noted for his ability to depict scenes of urban life without deteriorating into anecdotes; everyday people are treated with humor and tenderness, dignity and nobility.
Along with fellow artists Paul Signac, Camille Pissarro, and Georges Seurat, Luce founded l’Ecole des Neo-Impressionists. They exhibited together in 1887 at the third Salon des Independants. Neo-Impressionism or Pointillism sought to improve upon the Impressionist style through the use of a scientific technique.
In 1894, following his military service, Luce became active in the Parisian anarchist movement. He was imprisoned that same year along with other members of the press for the publication of riot inciting art. Luce was eventually acquitted in what became known as the Trial of the Thirty. Luce’s penchant for social liberalism also led him to resign his post as President of the Societe des Artistes Independants, to which he was elected in 1934, in protest to the racial laws enacted by the Vichy regime barring Jewish artists from official gatherings.
His work can be found in the collections of the Metropolitan Museum, NY; the National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC; the Minneapolis Institute of Art, MN; the Phoenix Art Museum, AZ; as well as many international institutions.
Lisa Yuskavage | Buying And Selling Fine Art | Ackerman’s Fine Art (b.1962)
Lisa Yuskavage is a contemporary artist who is known for exhibiting the female form. Born in Philadelphia, she attended the Tyler School of Art in Temple University. She later went to art school at Yale.
Her art is all about the female form. She exhibits it in all shapes and colors, using all kinds of landscape backgrounds and lighting to make sure that she teases the mind, leaving not very much to the imagination. She is bold, and her paintings are sometimes seen by the conventional as a little extreme.
In the 1990s, she participated mainly in group exhibitions, but in 2000, she had her first solo exhibition in Philadelphia. She later had another in Switzerland in 2001 and then in Mexico City in 2006.
Today, she is represented in New York by David Zwirner. Her major works can be found in Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois The Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Washington, D.C. Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles, California the Museum of Contemporary Art, San Diego, California The Museum of Modern Art, New York San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, San Francisco, California Seattle Art Museum, Seattle, Washington Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, The Netherlands The Tampa Museum of Art, Tampa, Florida The Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota the Weatherspoon Art Museum, University of North Carolina, Greensboro, North Carolina, and the Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, New York.
Considering her bold style, critiques are sometimes not kind. They think that she poses the female form as ugly and removes the mystery that has been know historically to entice men. She has a huge fan base though, with many people buying her art because they think it is sensuous.
Some reviews have her as an artist who made a few good paintings and has no more left in her its hard to judge really. We just have to wait to see what she produces next.
To view a video about Lisa Yuskavage, click here.
William Merritt Chase (1849-1916)
Born in Johnson County, Indiana, on November 1, 1849, William Merritt Chase studied art in nearby Indianapolis with B. F. Hayes, J. O. Eaton and A. Wagoner. In 1870, he continued his studies at the National Academy of Design in New York. Between 1872 and 1877, he traveled to Europe, where he studied at the Royal Academy in Munich and then visited Venice for nine months with artists Frank Duveneck and John Henry Twachtman. Chase returned to live in New York in 1878.
Chase taught at the Art Students League, from his 10th Street studio, the Brooklyn Academy of Art, the Chase School of Art [re-named New York School of Art, in 1898] and may other institutions throughout his life. He was a influential teacher to a whole generation of students who later became well-known artists in their own right, including Kenneth Hayes Miller, Marsden Hartley, Rockwell Kent, Charles Sheeler, Georgia O’Keeffe and Edward Hopper. In 1902, he was elected to become a member of “The Ten,” a loosely knit organization of artists who regularly exhibited together. This group of artists came to be regarded as a kind of academy of American Impressionism.
William Merritt Chase died on October 15, 1916. Chase is represented in many museums including the Metropolitan Museum of Art, Boston’s Museum of Fine Arts, Corcoran Gallery of Art, Terra Museum of American Art, National Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, Rhode Island School of Design, Cincinnati Museum and many leading private and college collections. He is considered one of the most talented of the American impressionists.
Alex Katz (b. 1927)
The son of Russian immigrants, Alex Katz was born July 24, 1927 in Brooklyn, New York and raised in Queens in a liberal, Bohemian setting. He is a figure painter of realistic portraits of friends and family, and his figures are usually relaxed close-ups from a frontal perspective and appear in a flattened manner. With his artwork, he strives to convey the feeling that it is good to be alive. It has been said that his style highly influenced the popularity of New Realism in the 1970s. Along with his associates Al Held and Philip Pearlstein, and others who were struggling against the ‘titanic presences of Pollock and de Kooning’ and other abstract expressionists.
Katz studied three years (1946-49) at Cooper Union and Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture in Skowhegan, Maine from 1949-50. During the 1960s, he was an art educator with teaching positions in New York City at the New York Studio School and School of Visual Arts; in New Haven at Yale University; and in Brooklyn at Pratt Institute. He also supported himself by making hand-carved frames and designing stage sets and costumes in 1960 and 1964 for the Paul Taylor Dance Company for their performances at the Festival of Two Worlds in Spoleto, Italy.
By 1954, Alex Katz had his first one-person show at the Roko Gallery in New York. The following year he began making cut paper collages. His wife, Ada, has been his model since they married in 1958. He works from a studio in SoHo, and they have lived in the same loft since 1968.
John Currin (b. 1962)
A contemporary painter who was part of a group that sought to resurrect figurative painting, John Currin strives for work that reveals both individual characteristics as well as some aspect of their life. His portraits and nudes have received widespread attention, and his specialty is cartoon-like women who veer between the appearance of total bimbo and older women who are uncomfortable with their sexuality. He only paints about twelve paintings a year.
He was born in Boulder, Colorado, earned his B.F.A. from Carnegie Mellon University, and in 1986 graduated from Yale University’s MFA program. With such high-brow credentials, he sees the irony in the “bimbo” subject matter for which he has become known, and calls it “art for dummies.” He had his first show in 1989 in New York at a downtown alternative space gallery and then signed with a more ‘main-line’ gallery. In 1993, his work was in the Venice Biennale and was also included in a 1997 Projects exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art in New York.
He married sculptor Rachel Feinstein and works from a studio overlooking West 14th Street in Manhattan’s Meatpacking District.
To view a video about John Currin, click here.
Emil Filla | Buying And Selling Fine Art | Ackerman’s Fine Art (1882-1953)
Surprisingly little is known about Czech artist Emil Filla, but his art continues to capture the attention of art lovers long after his death. Born in Morovia in 1882, he spent his childhood years in Brno and later moved to Prague where he started to attend the Prague Academy. He didnt stay long he left 3 years later in 1906.
He joined the Osma, a group which was similar to Fauves and Die Brucke. He produced some famous paintings during this time, including Reader of Dostoevsky and Chess Players.
In 1910, he changed his painting style to cubist, influenced by Picasso and Braque. He also started to paint still life’s, and later in the following year, he wrote for an art magazine promoting cubism as well as made reproductions of some Picasso’s. This did not go down with some readers and fellow artists, and he left to found the Group of Visual Artists, a cubist group. In 1913, he and another artist produced the first cubist sculpture, and in the following years, he traveled through Europe producing structures that are famous to this day. His style in painting was starting to lean towards surrealist by this time, but a difficult time was coming for him.
On the first day of World War 2, he was arrested was imprisoned first in Dachau and then Buchenwald, the worst of the German concentration camps. He survived though, and when he was eventually free, he went back to his home to teach at the Academy of Arts, Architecture and Design in Prague.
He is noted as the first artist after the war to exhibit in Manes. His exhibition paintings were mainly around the theme of Fights and Struggles, and later in his life, he did landscapes.
He remains an artist who had lots of talent in many areas he was a painter, sculptor, collector, theoretician, editor, organizer, and diplomat. He died in 1953 and is buried in Prague.
To view a video about Emile Filla, click here.
Eric Fischl (b. 1948)
Eric Fischl (b.1948)
Fischl was born in New York City on March 9, 1948, and grew up in Long Island. Currently, Fischl is a celebrated artist among many museums and art galleries around the world. Fischl is also one of the most influential artists of the 20th and 21st centuries because of his remarkable accomplishments.
In the year 1967, Fischls family moved all the way to Phoenix, Arizona. Growing up in Fischls household was tough. In his website, his childhood was described as against a backdrop of alcoholism and a country club culture obsessed with image over content.
Eric Fischls formal art schooling started at Phoenix College. He also spent a year Arizona State University before continuing his studies at the prestigious California Institute of the Arts. It was in this school where Fischl attained his bachelors degree in fine arts. Fischl then left for Chicago and took on a rather unlikely job as one of the guards in the Museum of Contemporary Art. It was in Chicago where Fischl was greatly exposed to the main influence of his work. Such great influences were Ed Paschke, Jim Nutt and Hairy Who.
By 1978, Eric Fischl moved back to New York with his then-girlfriend, April Gornik. A year after moving, Fischl had the opportunity to have his first gallery show, which was in the Edward Thorp Gallery. Fischls featured work had a suburbia theme, which was influenced by the artists he met in Chicago and his tough childhood. It was considered to be a daring move then, as the suburbia genre was not an acceptable genre then. What caught the eyes of critics everywhere was that his work involved the dark side of the conventional life of an American. Today, Fischls paintings are all about the age-old tradition of bull fighting. He is also currently working on a large moving gallery that has a circus-like theme.
Lyonel Feininger (1871-1956)
An abstract modernist, Lyonel Charles Adrian Feininger was part of the German avant-garde of the early twentieth century and one of the early teachers at the Bauhaus in Weimar, Germany in 1919, founded by architect Walter Gropius. In 1921, he had a joint exhibition with Paul Klee at the Weimar Museum.
With Cubist style and evocative color, he depicted modern life, especially factories, bridges, ships, harbors, and buildings.
Feininger was born in New York City to German Jewish parents, son of violinist Karl Feininger and singer Elizabeth Cecilia (Lutz) Feininger. He moved to Germany in 1887 intending to study music but taking drawing lessons in Hamburg instead. He moved to Berlin in 1888, enrolling at the Royal Academy of Art. At the request of his father, he moved to Belgium in 1890, attending the Collège Saint Servais in Lüttich, but returned to Berlin the following year, continuing his studies at the academy. Besides painting, Feininger did become an accomplished pianist and composed fugues, which reflected his art that explored interrelationships, synchronization, overlapping in the building of an overall sense of order.
He remained in Germany until 1936, where he had begun working as an illustrator of children’s books and as a political cartoonist for several periodicals in 1889. From 1906 to 1908, he lived in Paris, and focused on his painting, studying at the Academie Colarossi. Upon his return to Berlin, Feininger joined the “Berliner Secession” group. In 1911 he exhibited eleven works at the “Salon des Indépendants” in Paris, and through his friendships with Jules Pascin and Robert Delaunay he became interested in Cubism and Orphism. Upon his return to Germany, the architecture of German towns with their Gothic cathedrals became subject of his painting, and in 1913, he left the “Berliner Secession”. While Feininger had already befriended Kandinsky and Klee of the “Blaue Reiter” in 1912, he did not become a member of the group.
In 1919, he was invited to join the faculty of the Bauhaus in Weimar, where he served as the first artistic director of the printing shop. His woodcut titled The Cathedral of Socialism served as a cover design for the Bauhaus manifesto by Gropius. Feininger remained at the school, which moved to Dessau in 1926. Hitler closed the school in 1933, and in 1936 Feininger followed an invitation to teach at Mills College in Oakland, California. Returning by the end of the year, he permanently moved his family to New York in 1937, teaching again at Mills College during the summer.
Under the Nazi regime Feininger, whose work had been widely exhibited and collected, became one of the many modern German artists whose work was banned and removed from public view. After he permanently left Germany in 1937, several of his paintings that had been confiscated were shown in the Nazi government exhibition of “Degenerate Art” held in Munich in 1937.
In 1939 Feininger was invited to create murals for the New York World’s Fair, and he found his new subject matter in the urban landscape of New York. His work found much acclaim and is represented in museums in the U.S. and abroad.
Lyonel Feininger died in New York January 15, 1956.
Matthew Baigell, Dictionary of American Artists
Edan Hughes, Artists in California
Peter Falk (editor), Who Was Who in American Art
George Condo (b.1957)
George Condo, born in 1957 in Concord, New Hampshire, studied Art History and Music Theory at Lowell University, Massachusetts from 1976 to 1978. Condo is known for his cartoon like paintings that grasp the imagination of many and captures a vast range of reactions. Condo’s artwork has been described as a twist between comedy and tragedy as some of his characters can be found disturbing yet beautiful.
New York’s East Village galleries displayed his work for the first time in 1981. Shortly after this, in 1983, Condo experienced his first solo exhibition in Los Angeles at the Ulrike Kantor Gallery. Gaining attention to his unique portrayal of the world, Condo remained busy. Continuing with a two-gallery exhibition at the Pat Hearn and Barbara Gladstone Galleries in New York in 1984.
Condo’s artistic style and unique representation of characters lead him to receive the Academy Award in Art from the American Academy of Arts and Letters in 1999.
Another of George Condo’s accomplishments is the release of a documentary film entitled, Condo Painting directed by John McNaughton in 2000.
Condo continues to produce distinctive paintings and works of art to this day, traveling between the United States and Europe participating in various exhibitions.
To view a video about George Condo, click here.
Guy Pene Du Bois (1884-1958)
Guy Pene Du Bois (1884-1958)
Though not much is known about his early life, Pene Du Bois was an expert at depicting the life around him. He would observe people and society in cafes, theatres and in particular loved to paint flappers. Flappers were the young, stylish 20th century women who moved around in high society. They wore short skirts, were popular in the jazz scene and generally went against what society thought was acceptable.
Pene started his art studies in 1899 in the New York School of Art under instruction from William Merrit Chase, a great art teacher of the day. In 1905, he travelled to Europe to study under Theodore Steinlen but he didn’t stay long his father dies the following year and he had to come back home.
In 1906, Guy Pen Du Bois got a job as a newspaper cartoonist with the New York American, and the following year he started to write an art critic column. In 1913, he started to write for the New York Post and became editor of The Arts and The Arts Weekly.
Not much is captured about him until 1940 when he published his autobiography, Artists Say The Silliest Things. He is best described by his friend Jerome Meyers in his autobiography, Artist In Manhattan.
“Guy was then the noted art critic and painter and even later, when he became the noted painter, he was still the art critic as well, coining his brief aphorisms with a dash of cosmopolitan cynicism, cool wisdom and dry humor. I regretted the intervention of his trips abroad but our intimate conversations were resumed whenever opportunity afforded, Guy remaining as ever my real spiritual comrade. He was always a wise friend, a wise teacher, the possessor of an individual and rare skill in painting, his life a notable one, his contacts illustrious. I envy him only all that his history entails in names and places, covering so much of our present art history.”
Robert Alan Bechtle (b. 1932)
Born in 1932 in San Francisco, California, Robert Alan Bechtle was a part of the West Coast photo-realist movement. Bechtle’s artistic nature shinned through at a young age when he began drawing. His future as an artist was encouraged by his family and teachers. The submittal of his artwork the National Endowment for the Arts earned Bechtle a grant that paid for his first year of college. He received a Bachelor’s degree in Art from the California College of Arts and Crafts in Oakland, California, where he studied Graphic Design. Bechtle went on to study painting, and received a Master’s degree in Fine Art. Upon graduation, Robert Bechtle was drafted into the United States Army, and served from 1954 to 1956. He later went on to instruct at the college from 1957 to 1961, and served as an assistant professor in 1962. Robert Alan Bechtle married Nancy Elizabeth Dalton in 1962, with whom he had three children. Bechtle went on to lecture at the University of California at Berkeley from 1965 to 1966, was a visiting artist at the University of California at Davis from 1966 to 1968, and served as an associate professor at the San Francisco State University for thirty years, beginning 1968.
Richard Diebenkorn and Nathan Oliviera served as Robert Alan Bechtle’s original inspiration. However, Bechtle desired to avoid the current style in the 1960s, leading him to realism. He is considered one of the first photo realists, along with Richard Estes, Chuck Close, and Ralph Goings. Infact, Louis Meisel, the man who coined the phrase photo realism, considers Bechtle “the” founder of the photo realism movement. These artists depict outdoor landscapes in their paintings, emulating photographs. Robert Alan Bechtle was inspired by his local surroundings, painting neighborhoods, home exteriors, and streetscapes. With a special attention to automobiles, his paintings reveal his perspective on color, light, shadow, and surface. His work as a West Coast photo realist opposed the still lives and figures which were painted by those of the East Coast. Robert Alan Bechtle is also an accomplished printmaker, beginning in lithography, but working mainly in etching.
Robert Alan Bechtle’s paintings have been exhibited internationally. His paintings are in the collections of the Museum of Modern Art, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Whitney and the Guggenheim Museums in New York. They are also in the Walker Art Center, the Smithsonian Institution and the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art.
William Robinson Leigh
Guy Carleton Wiggins
Gil Gilette Elvgren
Sven Birger Sandzen
John George Brown
Walter Launt Palmer
Roland Petersen (b. 1926)
An American painter and printmaker of Danish birth, Roland Petersen was born in Endelave, Denmark in 1926. He studied at the University of California at Berkeley, from which he received a Master’s degree in 1950. Petersen went on to study painting during the summers of 1950 and 1951 at the Hans Hofmann School of Fine Arts in Provincetown, Massachusetts. In 1951 and 1952, he studied photography at the California School of Fine Arts in Oakland, and in 1954 at the California College of Arts and Crafts also in Oakland, he studied ceramics. Petersen continued his studies focusing on etching and color printing at the Stanley William Hayter Atlier in Paris in 1950, 1963 and 1971. Rolands Peterson won a Guggenheim Fellowship and a Fulbright Fellowship. He served as art professor at the University of California, Davis from 1956 to 1991.
Earning a reputation as one of California’s leading contemporary artists, Roland Petersen’s richly colored acrylic genre, interiors, and cityscape pieces are a combination of realism and interlocking geometric shapes. His works are in color intaglio, a category of printmaking techniques including etching, drypoint, and engraving, which is used to achieve textures within the image. Aside from his strong use of color, he is known for his contrast of light and shadow, and the integration of still life, figure, and landscape.
Roland Petersen’s work exhibitions include the Oakland Art Museum in 1954, Crocker Art Museum in 1965, Phoenix Art Museum in 1972, and the University of Reading, England in 1977. His paintings have been displayed in numerous gallery exhibitions in San Francisco between 1978 and 1993. In March 2010, the Monterey Museum of Art in Monterey, California used Peterson’s work as the subject of a major retrospective entitled “Roland Petersen: 50 Years of Painting”.
Other Impressionist Artists
Walter Launt Palmer
Sven Birger Sandzen
Joseph Henry Sharp
Marc (Moishe Shagal) Chagall
Jean Pierre Cassigneul
Maurice de Vlaminck (1876-1958)
Maurice de Vlaminck, a French painter, was born on April 4, 1876 in Paris. He was born to a family of musicians. Vlaminck began painting in his late teens. In 1893, he studied at the Ile de Chatou under painter Henri Rigalon. In 1894, Vlaminck married Suzanne Berly.
When Vlaminck was 23, he met aspiring artist André Derain, with whom he had a life-long friendship. The two rented a studio together for one year. In 1902 and 1903, Vlaminck wrote several mildly pornographic novels that were illustrated by Derain. During this time, Vlaminck painted during the day and earned his livelihood by giving violin lessons and performing with musical bands at night.
In 1911, Mauire de Vlaminck traveled to London and painted by the Thames. He painted with Derain in Marseille and Martigues in 1913. During World War I, Vlaminck was stationed in Paris, where he began writing poetry. He eventually settled in the northwestern suburbs of Paris. He married his second wife, Berthe Combes, with whom he had two daughters. Vlaminck wrote many autobiographies, marred little either by lack of confidence or adherence to the truth.
His works show familiarity with the Impressionists. Along with André Derain and Henri Matisse he is considered one of the principal figures in the Fauve movement, a group of modern artists who from 1904 to 1908 were united in their use of intense color. From 1908 his palette grew more monochromatic. His predominant influence was that of Cézanne. His later work displayed a dark palette, with heavy strokes of contrasting white paint.
Vlaminck’s groundbreaking paintings, Sur le zinc (At the Bar) and L’homme a la pipe (Man Smoking a Pipe) were painted in 1900.
Vlaminck died on October, 11 1958 in Rueil-la-Gadelière.
To view a video about Maurice de Vlaminck, click here.
Chaim Soutine (1893-1942)
Chaïm Soutine, a Jewish painter, was born on January 13, 1893 in Smilavichi (which is now in Belarus), a country on the western border of Russia. Soutine was the tenth of eleven children, their father a tailor. As a child, he took art lessons in the nearby town of Minsk. In 1910, he applied for admission to the School of Fine Arts in Vilna; however, he failed the entrance exam on his first try. He was later successful in enrollment after private lessons from one of the school’s teachers. In 1913, Soutine traveled to Paris to study at the École des Beaux-Arts under Fernand Cormon.
For a time, Chaïm Soutine lived at La Ruche, a residence for struggling artist in Montparnasse. Here he became friends with Amedeo Modigliani, who painted Soutine’s portrait several times, most famously in 1917. The portrait was painted on a door of an apartment belonging to Léopold Zborowski, their art dealer. Zborowski supported Soutine through World War I, taking Soutine with him to Nice to escape the German bombing of Paris. After the war Paul Guillaume, a highly influential art dealer, began to champion the artist’s work. In 1923, prominent American collector Albert C. Barnes bought 60 of Soutine’s paintings.
From 1918 to 1922, Soutine traveled frequently and completed over 200 paintings, sixty of which were purchased by Philadelphia collector, Albert Barnes. Barnes wrote published articles about the quality of Soutine’s paintings. These articles enhanced Soutine’s reputation and brought him more financial stability.
Chaïm Soutine once kept an animal carcass in his studio so he could paint it, resulting in Carcass of Beef. The stench of the dead animal drove neighbors to send for the police, to whom Soutine lectured the relative importance of art over hygiene. He painted 10 works in this series, which have since become his most iconic. These paintings were inspired by Rembrant’s still life of carcasses.
The majority of Chaïm Soutine’s paintings were created from 1920 to 1929. He held his first exhibition in Chicago in 1935. He seldom showed his works, however he did take part in The Origins and Development of International Independent Art exhibition held at the Galerie nationale du Jeu de Paume in 1937 in Paris. Soon thereafter, Soutine had to escape from France in order to avoid arrest by the Gestapo. He was on the move from place to place, and was foced to seek shelter outdoors in the forests. Soutine suffered from a stomach ulcer, and left his hiding place for Paris to undergo emergency surgery. The surgery failed to save his life. Chaïm Soutine died of a perforated ulcer on August 9, 1943.
To view a video about Chaim Soutine, click here.
Alexei von Jawlensky (1864-1961)
Alexei von Jawlensky only began his artistic training in 1889 in St. Petersburg after a career as an officer in the tsarist army. He studied under Ilja Repin who introduced him to Marianne von Werefkin and Helene Nesnakomoff, his later wife. Jawlensky accompanied these two to Munich in 1896, where they wanted to visit a private art school., Here Jawlensky met Wassily Kandinsky.
The artist undertook several trips to France and was able to show ten paintings at the ‘Salon d’automne’ with the help of Sergej Djagilev. Jawlensky also met Henri Matisse for the first time. In summer 1908 he worked with Kandinsky, Marianne von Werefkin and Gabriele Münter in Murnau for the first time. There, the four artists developed the idea for the foundation of the ‘Neue Künstlervereinigung München’ to which they aligned with other artists. In December the first exhibition took place in Munich.
Two years later the ‘Blauer Reiter’ was established as a new idea of co-operation. In 1913 Jawlensky participated in Herwarth Walden’s first German autumn Salon in Berlin. When in 1914 world war I began, Jawlensky was expelled from Germany due to his Russian citizenship. He moved with his family and Marianne von Werefkin to Prex on Lake Geneva. And remained in Switzerland until 1921, where he began painting his abstract heads in 1918. His final move to Wiesbaden took place in 1921. An attack of arthritis in 1929 forced the artist to visit various spas at regular intervals.
Alexei von Jawlensky suffered from a progressing paralysis and had difficulties in painting. One year later the painter began the series of small-format ‘Meditationen’. 72 of his works were confiscated in 1937 as “degenerate”. Three years later in 1941 Jawlensky died in Wiesbaden. At the beginning Jawlensky’s style was influenced by the Fauves, particularly by Matisse, but the artist soon discovered his own, Expressionist style, which is characterised by strong colours and simple forms. Later he turned to those calm, spiritualised and mystical images of the Human face, which are so typical of Jawlensky.
Emil Nolde | Buying And Selling Fine Art | Ackerman’s Fine Art (1867-1956)
Emil Nolde was born Emil Hansen in Nolde the German-Danish border in 1867. In later life, he changed his name to the name of his town for the sake of his art. His talent shows from an early age, when as a young boy he completed an apprenticeship doing woodwork in 1884. He excelled, and he liked the work enough to later enroll in curving school until 1888. He later attended the Karlsruhe School of Applied Arts and he started to make furniture designs foir businesses in Munich and Karlsruhe.
In 1890, he went to Berlin, and he started to work as an art teacher in the Museum of Industry and Commerce in St. Gallen, which had an art school within it. He started to make caricatures of the Swiss Mountains, and he successfully had them published in postcards. He got enough money to make him financially secure for years. In 1898, he enrolled in the school of Friedrich Fehr to study painting, and later he want to Dachau. At this time, he had some money, but he was far from what were called the great painters of the day. He had self-doubt about his ability, but he carried on studying and painting.
In 1900, he went to Paris, to the Academie Julian. In 1901, he went to Berlein and there he set up his own studio. Unfortunately, before he could get much done, he came down with tuberculosis and he had to go and stay with his parents at their farm in Alsen until 1903. In 1904, he went to Italy and in 1906 was able to exhibit at there. He continued to be a loner, but one who expressed himself strongly. He was to pay for this later when his works were banned in Germany. Until his death, he continued to paint small watercolors.
Rene Magritte (1898-1967)
René François Ghislain Magritte, a Belgian surrealist artist, was born on November 21, 1898 in Lessines. He was the eldest son of Léopold and Régina Magritte. His mother Régina committed suicide on March 12, 1912 by drowning herself in the River Sambre. Supposedly, when his mother’s body was found her dress was covering her face, an image that has been suggested as the source of several of Magritte’s paintings in 1927-1928. The paintings depicted people with cloth obscuring their faces, including Les Amants.
René Magritte began drawing lessons in 1910. His earliest paintings were Impressionistic in style. He studied at the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts in Brussels from 1916 to 1918, under Constant Motald. However, Magritte found the instruction uninspiring. The paintings that he produced from 1916 to 1918 were influenced by Futurism and Cubism, mostly portraying female nudes. His inspiration during this time came from the Purists and Fernand Léger.
Magritte’s acquaintance with Giorgio de Chirico’s Pittura Metafisica (Metaphysical Painting) and Dadaistic poetry constituted an important artistic turning point in his career. In1925, together with E.L.T. Mesens, Jean Arp, Francis Picabia, Schwitters, Tzara and Man Ray, he co-operated in the magazines Aesophage and Marie, and became close with a group of Dadaists.
In 1926, René Magritte produced his first Surrealist painting, entitled The Lost Jockey. From 1927 to 1930, Magritte lived in Frace, establishing relationships with Surrealists, including Max Ernts, Dali, André Breton, and Paul Eluard. While living in Paris, Magritte formed a system of conceptual painting, which remained virtually unchanged until the end of his life. His painting manner was precise and clean, and he was able to depict trustworthy an unreal, unthinkable reality. He used symbols of mirrors, eyes, windows, stages, and curtains and pictures within pictures to demonstrate the problems of visual perception and illusionary of images.
In the 1940s Magritte attempted to change his painting style twice. From 1945 to 1947, during his “vie-heureuse” period, he painted in the style of Renoir. 1947 to 1948 was classified as the “époque vache” or the “Cow Period”. Neither styles proved to be effective; Magritte returned to his previous style.
During the 1950s, René Magritte painted The Enchanted Realm (1953) for a casino in Knokke-le-Zut, and The Ignorant Fairy (1957) for the Palais des Beaux-Arts in Charleroi. In the last year of his life, Magritte began to make sculptures of his painted images, developing the theme of correlation of mental and material realities.
René Magritte died of cancer on August 15, 1967 in Brussels. He was 69 years old.
Paul Delvaux (1897-1994)
Paul Delvaux was born on September 23, 1897 in Antheit, Belgium. He is famous for his surrealist paintings with female nudes. As a young boy Delvaux took music lessons, studied Greek and Latin, and read the fiction of Jules Verne and the poetry of Homer.
Delvaux studied architecture from 1916 to 1917 at the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts in Brussels, owing to his parents’ disapproval of his ambition to be a painter. However, he pursued his goal and attended painting classes at the Academie des Beaux-Arts in Brussels, taught by Constant Montald and Jean Delville from 1919 to 1920. From 1920 to 1921 he served in the Belgain Army, and in 1924 he opened a studio in Brussels.
Paul Delvaux painted heavy landscapes until he was forty; a Flemish variation of the German and Scandinavian expressionism. In 1936 he discovered the surrealist work of de Chirico and Magritte, and destroyed almost every painting he had done before.
During the German occupations in 1940 to 1944, he worked in seclusion on designs for theatre and ballet. From 1949 he lived in Choisel, France, and in 1952 married Anne-Marie (Tam) DeMartelaere. From 1950 to 1962 he was Professor of Painting at the Ecole Nationale Superier d’art and d’architecture in Brussels, and President of the Academie Royale des Beaux-arts in Brussels in 1965. In 1982, the Paul Delvaux Museum opened in Saint-Idesbald.
Delvaux was not formally a member of the surrealist movement, however he was considered to be one of the last of that pionerring group that shocked and offended much of the art world in the 1920s. He gained fame for his depiction of the richness of the subconscious in figurative but irrational images that displayed the impossibility of significant connection between the sexes. He painted nude women in public settings where they were aloof to the experience.
Paul Delvaux died in Veurne on July 20, 1994.
To view a video about Paul Delvaux, click here.