Takanori Oguiss (1901-1986)
James Rosenquist (1933 -)
James Rosenquist was born in 1933 in North Dakota. At 15, he began to study art at the Minneapolis Art Institute and later studied painting at the University of Minnesota. In 1955, Rosenquist was awarded a scholarship to the Art Students’ League, New York. This opportunity would have a great influence on his work. He met other artists such as Robert Indiana. Jasper Johns and Robert Rauschenberg and Claes Oldenburg while living and working in New York.
In the early ‘60s he worked creating billboards. The influence from this experience can be seen in his fine art and the style in which he became known for, by combining unrelated pop culture imagery to create poignant statements. The Green Gallery, in 1962, gave Rosenquist his first solo show and it sold out. In 1965 he started creating lithographs.
James Rosenquist has received numerous honors, including the Art in America Young Talent Painter in 1963, serving on the Board of the National Council on the Arts in 1978, and nominated as a member of the American Academy and Institute of Arts and Letters in 1987. Rosenquist also joined the board of The American Friends of the Tel Aviv Museum of Art in 2007
In 1968, the National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa held his first retrospective exhibition.
By the mid 80’s, James Rosenquist was given retrospective exhibitions at six American museums that showcased his career and it’s development. His work has continued to be exhibited in museums worldwide. He is considered to be an important artist in the development of pop art.
Georg Kern Baselitz (1938 - )
Georg Kern Baselitz was born in 1938. He studied art at the East Berlin Academy of Fine Arts from 1956-57, and Akademie der Kunste in West Berlin from 1957 to 1964.
Baselitz is considered a leading Neo-Expressionist. He was part of a group of German painters who rejected abstraction for very expressive paintings with recognizable subjects. But he displayed his works upside down to emphasize surface over subject matter. He was focusing on subject and the vibrancy of the colors. Georg Baselitz also created etchings, woodcuts, and wood sculptures that are every bit as expressive has his paintings.
He is a revolutionary painter who had the ability to acquire the viewer’s attention with his works and make them think. In 1995, the Guggenheim Museum in New York City held his first American retrospective. Georg Baselitz currently lives and works near Munich and in Imperia.
Sigmar Polke (1941 - 2010)
Sigmar Polke was born in 1941 in Germany. As a child, his family was forced to escape from East to West Berlin in 1953. In 1961, he went to study art at the Düsseldorf Arts Academy. Düsseldorf at this time was a thriving artistic and cultural city. In 1963, Polke and fellow artist Gerhard Richter founded an art movement called “Capitalist realism. This term is meant to refer to the modern art of the West.
Polke’s early work is often called European Pop art because he depicts everyday items along with images found in mass media in post war Germany. Later Sigmar Polke created works that are referred to as his “raster drawings”, which creates the image via a series of dots, similar to the way Roy Litchenstein worked. .
He also used industrial printed fabrics as a background for his subjects. His experimenting continues with the use of photo-chemicals which allows colors in works to change over time with different exposures to light or temperatures.
Sigmar Polke is known for experimenting with his style and medium. This makes him as an artist difficult to categorize in a particular art movement. He was always innovative.
Brett Whiteley (1939 - 1992)
Brett Whiteley was born in 1939. He is a reknowned Australian avant-garde artist. He began creating art as a teenage painting and studied drawing at the National Art School in East Sydney. Soon he met the director of the Whitechapel Gallery and got his work included in an exhibition of new Austrailian painting. The Tate gallery purchased a piece from that show.
In the early 1960s, Brett Whiteley moved to London. The work from this time period reflects the influence of Modernist British abstract art. This work propelled his career forward and he began earning recognition. In 1967, Whiteley won a Harkness Fellowship Scholarship to study and work in New York. He lived at the Chelsea Hotel along with other artists. He traded paintings with the hotel for rent. One of those traded painting recently sold for just over a million US dollars. Brett Whiteley had become political and also began drinking and taking drugs, which would plague him for the rest of his life.
By the time he returned to Sydney in the early 70s, he was well known and admired. Brett Whiteley continues to painting and collaborate with other artists on projects throughout the 70s and 80s. His work receives several awards including the Archibald Prize and Wynne Prize. Unfortunately, his drug and alcohol abuse would catch up with him and he dies in 1992 from a heroin overdose. He was 53 years old.
Charles Camoin (1897-1965)
Charles Camoin was born in France in 1897. He studied art under Gustave Moreau at the Ecole des Beaux Arts in Paris. There he met some influential friends and together they formed the Fauve art movement. This group consisted of artists Henri Manguin, Henri Matisse, André Derain, Georges Rouault and Maurice de Vlaminck. Fauve, meaning “Wild Beasts”, is known for its wild expressionist color pallet that broke away from the Impressionist pastels of the time.
In 1903, Charles Camoin exhibited at the Salon des Artistes Independants. This lead to his first solo show the following year in Paris at the Galerie Berthe Weill. By 1913, his work was shown in three retrospective shows. He also participated in the landmark Armory Show in New York in 1913. Another major retrospective was held in 1971 in Nice, France.
Camoin painted a variety of subjects, including still lifes, landscapes, nudes and portraits. Today, his style is considered to be a blend of both post-Impressionism and Fauvism. He was the last surviving member of the Fauves and died in 1965. His work is found in museums around the globe and are highly prized by collectors, as Charles Camoin made a significant contribution to the history of art and influenced countless artist that followed.
Morris Louis (1912 - 1962)
Morris Louis was born in 1912. He studied art at the Maryland Institute of Fine and Applied Arts. He lived in New York for a few years and worked for the Works Progress Administration Federal Art Project. He returned to Maryland in 1940 and began using a new paint created for him called Magna paint. It was a special oil based acrylic paint.
By the 1950s, Morris Louis had moved to Washington D.C. Along with other artists friends, Louis developed Color Field painting. This style of painting used large areas of raw canvas with solid planes of fluid paint. It had an expressive and psychological affect on the work with flat, intense color and repetitive patterns.
After a visit to Helen Frankenthaler’s New York studio, Morris Louis began to experiment with his technique by applying very diluted paint to an unprimed, unstretched canvas. He tilted the surface to allow the color to flow over the raw surface and sometimes creating translucent color veils. These became his veil paintings.
Morris Louis died of lung cancer in 1962. Retrospective exhibitions of his work have show in museums since his death.
Norman Bluhm (1921 - 1999)
An Abstract Expressionist and action painter, Norman Bluhm was born in Chicago in 1921. He studied art in Florence before moving to Paris in 1947 to continue studies at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. He lived there until 1956 and moved in a circle of other expatriate artists and writers. After Paris he moved to New York. Bluhm became an important figure of Second Generation Abstract Expressionism.
Norman Bluhm’s use of impasto and dripped paint are a spatial exploration of form and color. His first solo exhibition was in 1957 at the Leo Castelli Gallery. He continued to show there for several more years. Bluhm disliked the commercial art world. Towards the end of his career, he and his wife moved to Vermont and he continued to paint.
Norman Bluhm enjoyed critical success during his lifetime. His work is included in the collections of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Whitney and the Museum of Modern Art.
Robert Burns Motherwell (1915-1991)
Robert Motherwell was born in Aberdeen, Washington in 1915. He graduated from Stanford University in 1937. He also studied philosophy at Harvard and continued his education at Columbia University. It was during his time at Columbia that he was encouraged to paint. After traveling to Mexico in 1941 and meeting Surrealist painter Matta, he decided to devote himself to becoming a full time artist.
By 1944, his work was exhibited in a solo exhibition at the Peggy Guggenheim’s Art of This Century gallery. Robert Motherwell became a champion of avant-garde art in America. In the 1950s, his work was being shown in museums and galleries throughout American and Europe.
He had a long and accomplished career. Robert Burns Motherwell received numerous awards and honors. Today, his works are included in museum collections throughout the world.
Kazuo Shiraga (1924 - 2008)
Kazuo Shiraga was born in Japan in 1924. He studied art at the Kyoto City Specialist School of Arts. Shortly after graduating in 1948, he formed the Zero Group with a small group of other like minded artists. The group’s philosophy was every work of art is created from nothing. Later, the group joined another avant garde art movement called the Gutai Art Association. This association’s philosophy would greatly influence the work Kazuo Shiraga would create throughout his career. They believed art should strive to combine human creative ability with the characteristics of the material. They wanted to avoid both social engagement and pure abstraction.
To practice this philosophy, Shiraga’s painting method was dripping paint onto the canvas and creating strokes with his feet while hanging from the ceiling. His work expresses feeling of power and speed. Kazuo Shiraga has earned a place in the history of Japanese avant-garde art.
Yayoi Kusama (1929)
Yayoi Kusama was born in, Japan in 1929. Her artistic career has spanned many mediums including painting, collage, sculpture and performance art. Kusama is best known for her paintings incorporating psychedelic colors and repetitious patterns.
As a child she suffered from hallucinations and obsessive thoughts. She studied art in Japan Kyoto Municipal School of Arts and Crafts, but did not like the formal style that was being taught. In the late 1950s, she began a body of work called Infinity Net Paintings. This series used dots, nets and flowers that took inspiration from her hallucinations. She continued with this theme and covered household items with dots, such as chairs, shoes and ladders.
She moved to the United States at the age of 27, first living in Seattle and then New York. It didn’t take long for Kusama to become a colorful personality in the New York art world and she collaborated with Andy Warhol, Claes Oldenberg, and Robert Morris. By the early 1970s, Yayoi Kusama moved back to Japan and was largely forgotten in New York, but today is recognized as an important avant-garde artist and has influenced many artists.
Henri Edmond Cross (1856 - 1910)
Henri Edmond Cross was born in France in 1856 with the name Henri-Edmond-Joseph Delacroix. He studied art at the École des Beaux-Arts and Écoles Académiques de Dessin et d’Architecture. In 1881, he changed his last name from Delacroix to Cross to distinguish himself from the Romantic painter, Eugène Delacroix.
His early work is distinguished by his darker color pallet and subjects of portraits and still life. Around 1883, Cross had the opportunity to meet Claude Monet and be exposed to the impressionistic style. As a result of the meeting, Henri Cross gradually changed his style to reflect the softer and brighter color pallet that he is best known for today.
In 1884, Henri Edmond Cross co-founded, along with George Seurat, the Société des Artistes Indépendants. Society members were artists who disagreed with the practices of the official Salon. Over the the remainder of his career, his work would reflect varying styles such as Neo-Impressionism, Pointism and Fauvist styles. Cross and Paul Signac were close friends throughout their lives and later in life they would host gatherings in Cross’s garden, with such artist attending as Matisse, André Derain, and Albert Marquet.
Cross is most known for being as a master of Neo-Impressionist works. He contributed greatly to that movement and influenced future generations of artists. Cross’s belief in Neo-Impressionist philosophy extended to include political philosophies as well. Henri Edmond Cross believed in anarchist principles, with hope for a Utopian society.
Today his work can be found in important collections around the world including The Art Institute of Chicago, the Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, Harvard University Art Museums,the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, Museum of Grenoble (Grenoble, France), Musée d’Orsay (Paris), the Museum of Modern Art (New York City), the National Gallery of Art (Washington D.C.), New Art Gallery (Walsall, England), the Tel Aviv Museum of Art and many more.
Georges Braque (1882-1963)
Georges Braque was born in 1882. His art studies began with night classes at École des Beaux-Arts, in Le Havre, and later he attended Académie Humbert, in Paris. Braque became one of the most important artists of the 20th century. Over the course of his career he painted in the style of the Fauvist and Cubist. He was a contributor to the development of both of these art movements.
Braque painted with the fellow artists Raoul Dufy and Othon Friesz, and together they developed a more subdued Fauvist style. In 1907, he exhibited works in the Salon des Indépendants of the Fauve style.
By 1908, Georges Braque’s work was influenced by Pablo Picasso and the Cubist movement. His work reflected his interest in geometry and multiple perspectives. Picasso and Braque collaborated on works and theory until WWI.
“The things that Picasso and I said to one another during those years will never be said again, and even if they were, no one would understand them anymore. It was like being roped together on a mountain.” – Georges Braque
After the war, he continued to paint, but softened his lines and abstraction. He died in 1963 in Paris.
Lovis Corinth (1858 - 1925)
Lovis Corinth was born in 1858 in Prussia. He studied art in both Paris at the Académie Julian and in Munich at the Academy of Fine Art
Corinth participated in an 1899 exhibition in Munich organized by the Berlin Secession. His earlier work was influenced by the naturalist paintings, but is certainly influenced by impressionist.
In December 1911, he suffered a stroke, which partially paralyzed his left side. Within a year, he was back to painting using his right hand and a broader appreciation of simple daily life. His subjects after this time reflect that with many landscapes and scenes of family. His brush strokes also change, giving his work a more expressionist quality.
Today Lovis Corinth’s work has earned a reputation of being on of the “Classics of Modern Art” and his works are exhibited in important museums and galleries.
Martin Kippenberger (1953 - 1997)
Martin Kippenberger was born in 1953 in Dortmund. He left school in his early teens and wondered through communes and various art schools. Kippenberger worked in multiple forms of art, including painting, sculpture, installation, drawing, photography and collage. Influences can be seen in works by Sigmar Polke and Gerhard Richter. His work is clearly a commentary on many issues regarding the role of the artist in our culture and within the system of art. It is often designed at shocking and disturbing the viewer.
He has had solo exhibitions at the Hirshhorn Museum in Washington D.C. and the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art. While Martin Kippenberger’s artwork has risen since his death in 1997, his market has evolved in stages. Today he is highly sought after by collectors.
Maurice Denis (1870 - 1943)
Maurice Denis was born in 1870, in a coastal town of the Normandy, France. He studied art both the École des Beaux-Arts and the Académie Julian. Against the naturalism of Impressionism, Denis instead admired to work and style of Paul Gauguin. Along with class mates, Paul Sérusier, Édouard Vuillard, Pierre Bonnard, and Ker Xavier Roussel, they formed an influential but short lived artist group called Nabis. Maurice Denise was 19 years old at this time.
He painted in light and color and is known for his flat painting planes and simplified forms. Denis was against much of modern painting of the time and once said “It should be remembered that a picture—before being a warhorse, a nude, or an anecdote of some sort—is essentially a flat surface covered with colours assembled in a certain order.”
Maurice Denis was a deeply religious man and many of subjects feature religious iconography and symbolism. He wrote extensively on the theory of art and about sacred art. He died in Paris in 1943 after an automobile accident.
Carlos Nadal (1917 - 1998)
Carlos Nadal was born in Paris in 1917, but in 1921 his family moved to Barcelona. His father was a commercial artist and exposed his son to art and artist such as Henri Matisse, Raoul Dufy and Maurice Utrillo. His art training came from both his father and by attending art school. He would continue his art education throughout his life.
Nadal was heavily influenced by Matisse and George Braque. His work is of the Fauvist style and incorporates wild colors, bold lines and unusual perspectives. He got his first solo exhibition at La Pinacoteca in Barcelona in 1942. He also lived in Montparnasse in Paris that was buzzing with artist in the day.
His early work captured scenes in Spain or Belgium. Once Carlos Nadal became established, he traveled and expanded his subjects to interiors as well as leisure scenes of coastal towns. By the 1960s, Nadal’s paintings were in great demand and exhibited throughout Europe. While abstraction soon became the fashion in art, Nadal never left his Fauvist roots. Today his works are still highly prized by collectors and museums around the world.
Giorgio De Chirico (1888 - 1978)
Giorgio de Chirico was an Italian surrealist painter who was born in 1888. He studied art in Italy and Greece and then moved to Germany to continue his studies at the Academy of Fine Arts in Munich. In 1911, he traveled to Paris and became influenced by poet-critic Apollinaire, who helped introduce de Chirico to the important annual art salons. He exhibited his paintings in 1913 at the Salon des Independants.
De Chirico was the first artist to incorporate confrontations of inanimate objects as his subjects for art. His work was unrelated to any other art movement and he was critically against modern art. This bold direction Giorgio de Chirico took with his work influenced the generation of artists who emerged later called the Surrealists, Max Ernst, Rene Magritte, Yves Tanguy, Salvador Dali among them.
By 1939, his work was of a neo-Baroque style and influenced by Peter Paul Rubens. These works were not received well and in revenge De Chirico created back-dated forgeries of his own works, and denounced many of his earlier paintings as forgeries. Still today, his best work is what was created before WWI.
Giorgio De Chirico is known as the founder of the Metaphysical art movement,whose work was intended to question of reality.
Gino Severini (1883 - 1966)
Cubist-Futurist painter Gino Severini was born in 1883. In 1899, already an artist, he went to Rome to study at the Villa Medici. There he was introduced to the divisionistic color technique that was being used by Neo-Impressionists artists. In 1906, Severini went to Paris and was able to study the Impressionists. He was particularly intrigued by Seurat’s painting style. He was also influenced by the works of Braque, Modigliani, Picasso and Gris. Soon, at the encouragement of some of his artist friends, he joined the Futurist-movement and signed the ‘Manifesto of Futurist Painting’. He is considered to be one of the co-founders of this style.
Gino Severini in known for works that depict the human body in motion. He painted cabaret scenes and dancers. By 1912, Severini was exhibiting works in Futurist exhibitions in Paris, London and Berlin. After 1915 however, his work became Cubist in style with geometric constructions making up his compositions. His subjects changed to favor still lifes with musical instruments and scenes from the Commedia dell’ Arte.
Severini was commissioned to paint several murals and mosaics. He was an accomplished artist that contributed to the history of art and it’s development. In 1950, Gino Severini was awarded the Grand Prize of the Biennale in Venice. Today his works are found in important private and public collections around the world.
John Philip Falter (1910 - 1982)
John Philip Falter is best known for his Illustrations for the Saturday Evening Post Covers and images of frontier life.
Grandma (Anna Robertson) Moses (1860 - 1961)
Grandma Moses is a self taught or primative artist. Born in Greenwich, New York in 1860, Anna Robertson was best known by her friends and family as Grandma Moses. She did not begin seriously painting until she was well into her 70’s, prior to which her work consisted of embroidered compositions. Grandma Moses painted mostly scenes depicting her rural life in New England. Her first painting Fireboard, circa 1918, currently resides at the Bennington Museum in Bennington, Vermont.
Grandma Moses’ popularity surged in the 1950’s with sell out exhibitions and numerous awards and commendations all over the world. In the 2001 publication ‘Grandma Moses in the Twenty-First Century’, art historian Judith Stein noted Grandma Moses as “A cultural icon, the spry, productive nonagenarian was continually cited as an inspiration for housewives, widows and retirees. Her images of America’s rural past were transferred to curtains, dresses, cookie jars, and dinner ware, and used to pitch cigarettes, cameras, lipstick and instant coffee.”
She was loved and respected by all. A U.S. commemorative stamp was even issued in her honor in 1969 and friend and fellow artist Norman Rockwell depicted her on the far left edge of his painting ‘Christmas Homecoming’. Shortly before Grandma Moses’ death at the age of 101, as an homage to her, the character Granny on the popular 1960s rural comedy television series ‘The Beverly Hillbillies’ was named Daisy Moses.
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Anselm Kiefer (1945 - )
Anselm Kiefer was born in 1945 in Donaueschingen , Germany. Initially he studied Law but he began his art education at The University of Freiburg and then attended an art academy in Karlsruhe, Germany. While there, he studied under well known realist and figurative painter Peter Dreher. He also informally studied under Joseph Beuys in Düsseldorf, Germany.
Kiefer’s work addresses controversial issues from German history. He is known for incorporating German mythology into his paintings as well as symbolism and mysticism to reflect his ideas on Germany and society overall. He began incorporating glass, lead, clay, wood, straw and dried flowers into his pieces. The works grew to an increasingly larger scale and the frailness of his materials creates a fascinating contrast to his hard subject matter. His style is considered Neo-Expressionist. Anselm Kiefer’s work spans across different mediums including photography, painting, sculpture and installation pieces. Kiefer’s artistic style has been linked to New Symbolism.
Anselm Kiefer’s first solo exhibition was in 1969 at Galerie am Kaiserplatz while he was in Karlsruhe, Germany. Since then his work has been collected by numerous museums, including; the Museum of Modern Art and the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York; the Tate Modern, London; the San Francisco Museum of Art; the Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto; the Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo and the Philadelphia Museum of Art. Kiefer also inaugurated the “Monumenta” program at the Grand Palais, Paris in 2007 with a vast site-specific installation of sculptures and paintings. He was the first living artist to do this since 1953 when Georges Braque completed his installation. Throughout his career, Anselm Kiefer has been awarded with prestigious art prizes in recognition of his accomplishments.
Joan Mitchell (1926 - 1992)
Joan Mitchell was born in Chicago in 1925. She was an important member of the American Abstract expressionist movement. She was a pioneer for women artists working at the time along with Lee Krasner, Grace Hartigan, and Helen Frankenthaler and enjoyed critical acclaim.
She studied at Smith College in Massachusetts and The Art Institute of Chicago. She received a $2,000 travel fellowship that allowed her to study in Paris and Provence in 1948-49. Landscapes were a favorite influence on her subject matter. She painted on unprimed canvas with expressive gestural,brushstrokes. She has described a painting as, “an organism that turns in space”.
After moving to Paris in 1959, she moved away from the bright colors of her earlier compositions, instead using more sombre hues. Her compositions also became more dense with central masses of color. Mitchell’s work is included in many museum collections including Museum of Modern Art, New York; Whitney Museum of American Art, New York; Art Institute of Chicago; Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Washington, D.C.; Tate Gallery, London; and the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art.
To view a video about Joan Mitchell, click here.
Manolo Valdes (1942 -)
Spanish artist Manolo Valdes. Born in 1942 Artist Manolo Valdes 1957 Entered the Ecole des Beaux-Arts San Carlos of Valencia, Spain.Valdes left in 1958 to devote his life to painting. 1964 Valdes formed the group Equipo Cranica, which was influenced by American and British Pop Art.
Manolo Valdés is one of the few contemporary artists to successfully master the disciplines of drawing, painting, sculpture and print making. His work is found in public collections worldwide, including the Peggy Guggenheim Collection in Venice, Italy; Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York; Modern Museet Art in Stockholm, Sweden; Musée National d’Art Moderne in Paris, France; Museo Nacional Centre de Arte Reina Sofía in Madrid, Spain; and The Museum of Modern Art, New York, New York.
Max Ernst (1891 - 1976)
Max Ernst was a German artist—in painting, sculpture and collage—who was a key figure in the Dadaist and Surrealist art movements. He was born on April 2, 1891 in a small Rhineland town called Bruhl, outside Cologne. In 1922 Ernst moved to Paris, where, two years later, he became a founding member of the Surrealists, a group of artists and writers whose work grew out of fantasies evoked from the unconscious. After 1934 Ernst increasingly focused on sculpture.
At the outbreak of World War II, Ernst moved to the United States, where he joined his third wife, the collector and gallery owner Peggy Guggenheim. After the war ended, he divorced Peggy and married artist Dorothea Tanning. The built a house in Arizona and Ernst found inspiration is the setting. He created a wonderful series of Arizona’s mountains. He did eventually return to Europe and continued to create art. He was always experiment and reinventing his work.
Paul Cezanne (1839 - 1906)
Paul Cezanne was born on January 19, 1839 in Aix-en-Provence in France. In 1852, he studied at the Collège Bourbon, where he met and befriended writer Émile Zola. He went on to study painting and drawing at the École des Beaux-Arts (School of Design) in Aix in 1856. He used thick brush strokes to give his early works a sculptural quality. He soon met the Impressionists and exhibited his work to horrible reviews, after which he stopped exhibiting for thirteen years.
Still lifes, landscapes, portraits, and bathers were his preferred subjects. Paul Cezanne’s paintings underwent continual adjustment; many were reworked and he never really considered them finished.
Paul Cezanne was one of the most influential artists in the history of twentieth-century painting and he influenced generations of artists that came after him in art history.
Juan Gris (1887 - 1927)
Juan Gris born in Madrid. He studied mechanical drawing and contributed drawings to local publications. He then went on to study painting with the academic artist José Maria Carbonero.
In 1906 he moved to Paris. He was only 19 years old. There he became friends with artists Henri Matisse, Georges Braque, Fernand Léger and Amedeo Modigliani. He also became friends with Picasso and considered him his teacher. Gertrude Stein once said that Juan Gris “was the one person that Picasso would have willingly wiped off the map.” By 1912 Gris had created his own personal Cubist style. Unlike Picasso and Braque, whose Cubist works were monochromatic, Gris painted with bright harmonious colors in daring, novel combinations in the manner of his friend Matisse.
Gris articulated most of his aesthetic theories during 1924 and 1925. Important exhibitions of his work took place at the Galerie Simon in Paris and the Galerie Flechtheim in Berlin in 1923, and at the Galerie Flechtheim in Dusseldorf in 1925.
Auguste Herbin (1882 - 1960)
Auguste Herbin was born in 1882 in Quievy, Nord, France. Early in his career, he joined the Impressionists and then the Fauves. His studio was next to Braque’s and Picasso’s. This was a wonderful introduction to Cubism and he began to experiment with the style. In 1917, he evolved again to an abstract style before discovering Constructivism. His work was exhibited in the same room as that of Jean Metzinger, Albert Gleizes and Fernand Léger in the Salon des Indépendants of 1910, and in 1912 he participated in the influential Section d’Or exhibition. By 1922, he began to paint figures.
Auguste Herbin is best know for his pure geometrical shapes and bright colors of his later abstract works. He has had tremendous influence on many younger abstract painters.
Paul Gauguin (1848 - 1903)
French Post-Impressionist Paul Gauguin was born in Paris, France in 1848. During his very early years, the family moved to Peru. The culture and colors there would later influence his art. He served in the French Merchant Marines and the French Navy for his military service. After his tour of duty and became a highly successful Parisian stockbroker.
In 1879, Paul Gauguin met Camille Pissarro and became a pupil and patron. Pissarro later invited him to exhibit with the Impressionists. It was during that period he began painting full time. He had become close friends with the impressionist and also found inspiration that would help shape his artistic expression through Paul Cézanne, Van Gogh and Émile Bernard . During the 1880’s Gauguin’s work began to shift away from traditional European Impressionism and became more mystical and symbolic.
Paul Gauguin made his first trip to Tahiti in 1891, after a failed exhibition left him longing for a more exotic location and inspiration for subjects. He decided to move there permanently in 1895. But even in such a paradise the Westernization and colonial corruption of Tahiti left Gauguin disenchanted and in 1901 he moved to the Marquesan island of Hiva Oa. He was in search of a lost paradise. He died there in 1903. His work and style had become an inspiration for a new generation of artists in Paris.
Paul Gauguin’s work had been very influential to artists including Pablo Picasso and Henri Matisse during the late 19th century French avant-garde movement and well into the 20th century following his death. His bold use of non-naturalistic color, formal distortion and the figures within his primitive works was important to the Symbolist art movement and to the birth of modern art.
Karl Schmidt-Rottluff (1884 - 1976)
Karl Schmidt-Rottluff was born in 1884 in Germany. His early creative output was as part of a group of German architecture students who exhibited under the name Die Brucke or The Bridge. The group wanted to “bridge” their modernist, avant-garde style with traditional movements from the past. Other members of The Bridge included Fritz Bleyl, Erich Heckel and Ernst Ludwig Kirchner. Work such as this contributed to the acceptance of 20th Century modernist art movements. The group stayed together until around 1913.
In the fall of 1911, Karl Schmidt-Rottluff moved to Berlin . In 1912, he had his first solo exhibition in Hamburg. During World War I Schmidt-Rottluff volunteered for service, and created wood sculpture in his spare time. His work during this time reflect the terrors of war that he was exposed to. In 1937, over six hundred of his paintings were seized by the Nazis and exhibited as “degenerate art”.
After the war, Karl Schmidt-Rottluff worked as a professor at the Hochschule der Bildenden Künste in West Berlin, where he had an important influence on a new generation of artists. He went on to found the Brucke Museum in Berlin with an endowment.
He died in Berlin in 1976.
Georges Seurat (1859 - 1891)
Georges Seurat was born on December 2, 1859, in Paris. In 1878, he studied at Ecole des Beaux-Arts. He became very interested in scientific theories about color perception and studied Principles of Harmony and Contrast of Colors. This knowledge would play in an important role in his development of the style called Pointillism, which broke down colors into their constituent hues and applying them side by side on canvas.
The first pointillism painting he did that fused design and color into a composition was “Sunday Afternoon on the Island of the Grande Jatte”. This has become one of his most famous works and resides in the collection of the Chicago Art Institute. Throughout the late 1880s, he worked outdoors painting landscapes inspired by Impressionism subject matter. Seurat late painted depictions of upper-class Parisian life, circuses and cabarets.
George Seurat died in 1891 in Paris, after suffering with pneumonia or meningitis. The contents of Seurat’s studio cataloged and offered to the Louvre, but they refused. A group of followers continued his style of work including Camille Pissarro and Paul Signac.
Henri Fantin-Latour (1836 - 1904)
Henri Fantin-Latour was a well known painter and lithographer. His work was done in the traditional style of the Old Masters.
In 1841 he moved to Paris and began to study art under his father, Théodore Fantin-Latour. He later studied at Ecole des Beaux Arts and then studied under the artist Gustave Courbet. He worked for a time copying Old Master paintings at the Louvre. There he became acquaintance of Edgar Degas, Edouard Manet and Berthe Morisot. He became close friends with James McNeill Whistler and with Whistler and Alphonse Legros, formed the Société des Trois.
Fantin-Latour made several trips to London. He exhibited his work at the Royal Academy in London and became noticed by collectors for still lifes and mythological scenes. He also received many portrait commissions. Fantin-Latour received the critical acclaim for a series of group portraits of the most renowned artists, writers, and musicians of his day.
John Frost (1890 - 1937)
John Duncan Fergusson (1874 - 1961)
Leon Kossoff (1926 -)
Charles Wilbert White (1918 - 1979)
Wassily Kandinsky (1866 - 1944)
Wassily Kandinsky, born in Moscow in 1866. Known mostly for his Abstract art he was very well educated. He studied law and economics at the University of Moscow. At the age of 30 he decided to begin art studies. Kandinsky moved to Munich in 1896 and began his studies at a private school founded by Anton Ažbe and also the Academy of Fine Arts in Munich.
Following World War I, Wassily Kandinsky moved to Germany where he taught at the Bauhaus School of Art and Architecture until it was closed by the Nazis. Kandinsky’s earliest work depicted Fauvism (he used colors as a form of expression) and pointillism. His tendency towards abstract art perhaps began when he released The Blue Mountain (1908–1909), one of his most famous earlier pieces. While teaching advanced theory at Bauhaus geometric elements began to take on increased importance. In 1926, Wassily Kandinsky published a theoretical book ‘Point and Line to Plane’.
During Kandinsky’s later years he ended up living in Paris and using his living room as a studio where he produced some of his most prominent works combining characteristics he had learned throughout his lifetime. Today he is considered to be the first paint purely abstract works.
William J. McCloskey (1859 - 1941)
Gilbert C. Stuart (1755 - 1828)
Peter Saul (1934 - )
Peter Saul was born in California in 1934. He studied art at the California School of Fine Arts and at Washington University in St. Louis. In 1958, he first introduced cartoon characters and super heros such as Donald Duck and Superman into his paintings.
His style can be tied with several art movements including Pop Art, Surrealism,and Expressionism, but it does not fit neatly into any of those categories. His work is often a commentary on aspects of contemporary life, art, history and politics. His paintings have become recognizable for the Day-Glo colors and exaggerated forms.
“I have tried very hard to be a “crazy artist,” in painting pictures, since the late 1950’s when I first got the idea. I love doing it. Being against the majority of intelligent viewers and on the side of the stupid, the obvious and the insolent really gives me a thrill and makes me laugh too.” - Peter Saul
In 2010, he was elected to the American Academy of Art and Letters. Peter Saul’s work can be found in several museums around the world including The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY; The Art Institute, Chicago, IL; The Los Angeles County Museum, Los Angeles, CA; the Musee des Beaux-Arts, Mons, Belgium; Musee National d’Art Moderne, Paris, France; and the Moderna Museet, Stockholm, Sweden.
Henri Julian Rousseau (1844 - 1910)
Odilon Redon (1840 - 1916)
Odilon Redon was born in Bordeaux, France in 1840. He gained a lot of inspiration from the estate he grew up on, which provided subjects from nature and a catalyst for fantasy. Other influences include works by Rembrandt, Corot, and especially to Delacroix.
After serving in the Franco-Prussian War, he settled in Paris and began to focus on his artistic development. He created many highly original charcoal drawings, he called his Noirs. He also created many lithographs during the 1880s and 1890s. Redon’s reputation until 1890 was based solely on his work in black and white, but he had been using color in landscape studies that were not exhibited at this point. These works often repeated or developed the subjects of the Noirs.
In 1899 Redon exhibited works with Nabis artists. These works influenced young painters at the time such as Bonnard and Vuillard. A large selection of his works was shown at the Salon d’Automne in 1904. Odilon Redon’s work contributed to the advent of Fauvism.
Redon died on July 6, 1916. In 2005 the Museum of Modern Art launched an exhibition entitled “Beyond The Visible”, a comprehensive overview of Redon’s work showcasing more than 100 paintings, drawings, prints and books.
Julian Schnabel (1951 - )
Julian Schnabel was born October 26, 1951 in Brooklyn, New York. His family moved to Brownville, Texas when he was very young. He came from a Jewish background. His mother was president of the Brooklyn chapter of Hadassah in the late 1940’s and he grew up wanting to become an artist. He received his BFA at the University of Houston and also studied at the Whitney Museum of American Art in New York. Julian Schnabel became known for his large ‘Plate Paintings’ consisting of broken ceramic pieces in the early 80’s.
Schnabel was a leader in the Neo-expressionism movement, modern art portraying recognizable objects, usually abstract and vivid with colors. Known for his bold statements and boisterous personality, he claimed to be ‘The closest thing to Picasso…’, and was heavily criticized by the public in the mid 1980’s. Although he has always considered himself a painter he is much better known for his writing and directing of films.
Julian Schnabel just recently reemerged in the art world in 2013 and is currently exhibiting in the United States. He lives in New York and has studios on Long Island and in New York City.
William McGregor Paxton (1869 - 1941)
Marianne Werefkin (1860 - 1938)
Max Weber (1881 - 1961)
Alfons Walde (1891 - 1958)
Victor Manuel (1897 - 1969)
George Tooker (1920 - 2011)
Vitaly Tikhov (1876 - 1939)
Yves Tanguy ((1900 - 1955)
Stanley Spencer (1881 - 1959)
William Sonntag (1822 - 1900)
Charles Sheeler (1883 - 1965)
Ben Shahn (1898 - 1969)
Mariano Rodriguez (1912 - 1990)
Gerhard Richter (1932 -)
Milton Resnick (1917 - 2004)
Ad Reinhardt (1913 - 1967)
Robert Reid ()
Paula Rego (1935 -)
Richard Pousette-Dart (1916 - 1992)
Fairfield Porter (1907 - 1975)
Elizabeth Peyton (1965 -)
Richard Pettibone (1938 -)
Samuel Peploe (1871 - 1935)
Julian Onderdonk (1882 - 1922)
Albert Oehlen (1954 -)
Roy Nuse (1885 - 1975)
Alfred Maurer (1868 - 1932)
Roberto Antonio Matta (1911 - 2002)
Alfredo Ramos Martinez (1871 - 1946)
Hailed by some as the Father of Mexican Modern Art, Alfredo Ramos Martinez has sadly been overlooked in recent years. However, this does not diminish Martinez’s legacy. He inspired the artists of southern California and his own students with his love of his native country and inventive style.
From a young age, Martinez was talented. Born in Monterrey, Mexico in 1871, his family was very supportive of his interest in art. At nine he painted a portrait of the Governor of Monterrey that was eventually sent to an exhibition in San Antoino, Texas. Impressed by his work, Martinez won first prize and the ability to attend Academia Nacional de Bellas Artes in Mexico City.
He did not enjoy his time in school and would often wander away to observed everyday life in Mexico City. The sunny plazas and narrow streets became a sanctuary and muse for sketches and watercolors.
Phoebe Apperson Hearst, mother of William Randolph Hearst, paid an official visit to Mexico City in 1899. The Mexican President requested that Martinez create hand printed menus for an official dinner. Phoebe Hearst was so impressed that she asked to meet Alfredo Ramos Martinez and offered to pay a monthly stipend for him to study in Paris.
While in Paris, he developed a post-Impressionist style. He wanted to express emotional depth and go beyond simply distorting subjects. He would run out of sketch paper, but one day his landlord gave him newspaper. The use of newspaper gave his art a new kind of texture and quickly became a favorite medium.
The Mexican Revolution prompted Martinez to return to Mexico. Thanks to a teaching post, he was able to found the Open Air School Project, which encouraged painting outside and breaking away from European style and teaching methods. Martinez encouraged his students to paint Mexican subjects. Muralist David Alfaro Siquieros was among his students.
In 1929, Martinez moved to Los Angeles for the wellbeing of his infant daughter, who suffered from a bone disease. Martinez introduced California to Mexican iconography and mural works. Celebrities such as designer Edith Head, and Alfred Hitchcock commissioned murals from him. Alfredo Ramos Martinez is a celebrated Mexican artist that inspired a generation of muralists and artists.
Mark Bradford (1961 -)
Born in Los Angeles, California in 1961, Mark Bradford did not begin studying art until the age of thirty. His mother owned a beauty salon where he helped occasionally. He began his studies at the California Institute of the Arts Valencia in 1991, earning his BFA in 1995 and his MFA in 1997. Bradford’s improvisational grid-like abstract work encompasses video, prints and sculptural installations as well as combining paints and collages. Being born and raised in an urban environment, Mark Bradford uses materials he scavenges from the street and transforms them into wall-size collages and installations that correspond to the underground economies, migrant communities and abandoned public areas.
Mark Bradford has won acclaim for his art from numerous foundations including the Bucksbaum Award (2006); the Louis Comfort Tiffany Foundation Award (2003); and the Joan Mitchell Foundation Award (2002). He has been included in major exhibitions at Los Angeles County Museum of Art (2006); Whitney Museum of American Art, New York (2003); REDCAT, Los Angeles (2004); and the Studio Museum in Harlem, New York (2001). Mark Bradford has participated in the twenty-seventh Bienal de São Paulo (2006); the Whitney Biennial (2006); and “inSite: Art Practices in the Public Domain,” San Diego, California, and Tijuana, Mexico (2005). He currently resides and works in his mother’s beauty salon in Los Angeles, California which he has transformed into a studio.
Mario Carreno (1913 - 1999)
Mario Carreño y Morales was born in Havana, Cuba in 1913, a year prior to the outbreak of World War I. His painting began at a very early age. The youngest of 10 siblings he had studied violin at the age of six but by the age of nine he won first prize for a pencil drawing of a portrait of his sister he entered in Havana’s newspaper El Mundo. He was quoted as stating “From that moment on I was liberated from the violin.” In 1925, at the age of 12, he had already achieved being welcomed into the Academia de San Alejandro, the oldest and most prestigious fine arts school in Cuba. When he was in his early 20’s, he moved overseas and enrolled in the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando in Madrid, Spain and shortly thereafter the Ecole des Arts Appliqués, Paris, France as well as the Académie Julian.
Following the outbreak of WWII, Mario Carreño was forced to return back home to Cuba where he met the eccentric millionaire Maria Luisa Gomez Mena whom he married for only a short period of time. She provided him with support for his art and put him in contact with key figures in the art trade as well as financed his catalogs and exhibitions at that time. In the late 1940’s, Carreño travelled briefly overseas to Chile and to New York where he met artists such as Mondrian and Pollock, but his work never took on the pure abstract form those artists practiced. By 1958, he left Cuba for good upon receiving an invitation to teach in Chili due to harassment by The Military Intelligence Service (under the Batista dictatorship). It was there that Mario Carreño became a true authority in the Chilean art world. He was one of the founders of the Catholic University School of Art of Santiago and began producing large murals and exhibits worldwide.
By the late 1970’s, some in Cuba considered Mario Carreño to be a counter-revolutionary “gusano” and his name was removed from nearly all public spaces and art programs in Cuba. He passed away in Santiago de Chile in 1999 following several cerebral attacks and a diabetic coma.
Dale William Nichols (1904 - 1995)
Gabriele Munter (1877 - 1962)
Henry Moret (1856 - 1913)
Alfred Jacob Miller (1810 - 1874)
Beatrice Milhazes (1960 -)
John Marin (1870 - 1953)
Alberto Magnelli (1888 - 1971)
Auguste Macke (1887 - 1914)
James E.H. Macdonald (1873 - 1932)
Andre Lhote (1885 - 1962)
Jack Levine (1915 - 2010)
Marie Laurencin (1885 - 1956)
Wifredo Lam (1902 - 1982)
Javacheff Christo (1395 -)
Javacheff Christo was born Christo Vladimirov Javacheff in Gabrovo, Bulgaria in 1935. He studied at the National Academy of Fine Arts in Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria, and briefly in Vienna, Austria at Akademie der Bildenden Künste. He rebelled against abstract art and focused on environmental works of art composed of everyday objects such as tin cans and bottles, magazines, furniture and automobiles.
In 1961, Javacheff Christo began collaborating with his wife Jeanne-Claude Denat de Guillebon, who was born on the same day as he in 1935 in Casablanca, Morocco. They had met in October of 1958 when he was commissioned to paint a portrait of her mother. Together they worked on the principle that the alteration of one element in a context affected all of its parts. According to Christo, the purpose of their art ‘Is simply to create works of art or joy and beauty and to create new ways of seeing familiar landscapes’. Javacheff Christo displayed his work in several galleries, including the well-known Castelli Gallery in New York and Gallery Schmela in Düsseldorf, Germany
Walt Francis Kuhn (1916 -)
Lee Lenore Krasner (1908 - 1984)
John Kacere (1920 - 1999)
Alexander Young (A.Y.) Jackson (1882 - 1974)
Jack Wilkinson Smith (1873 - 1949)
Philip Guston (1913 - 1980)
Georges Rouault (1871 - 1958)
Born in Paris in 1871, George Rouault was first introduced to art by his grandfather, who collected Courbet. As a teenager, Rouault apprenticed as a glass painter. This experience along with his fascination with the medieval church guided his style towards heavy lines and piercing color, evocative of stained glass.
Throughout his career, Rouault developed his deeply personal style. The flat, fractured subjects evoke religious iconography. Like Degas and Toulouse-Lautrec before him, Rouault became fascinated by performers. Clowns held special importance. George Rouault felt that they suffered so that the audience could forget their own troubles. He found tragedy within the comedy. This idea inspired Georges Rouault to paint clowns as a modern day Christ figure.
Rouault later found this kind of nobility in other subjects such as prostitutes and day laborers. He was interested in exploring this idea of suffering for the sake of someone else. Each subject was weary, vulnerable, and deeply human. Coupled with his unique style, these works give the impression that they belong in allegorical cathedral art.
Vollard, an esteemed art dealer and agent, became interested in George Rouault and purchased his entire studio in 1913. Vollard became Rouault’s exclusive agent and provided for finical security. With this new stability, George Rouault was able to further explore new methods and produce more consistent work.
George Rouault’s works overall can be identified by their thoughtfulness and almost private nature. Religious, but never preaching or judgmental, Rouault presents cycles of hardships and salvations.
John Folinsbee (1892 - 1972)
Folinsbee is chiefly recognized as a leading member among the New Hope School of American Impressionism. New Hope was part of Pennsylvania Impressionism, an offshoot of American Impressionism. Pennsylvania Impressionism was one of the major voices of the American art community during the 1910s and 1920s. These artists were praised for their more realistic and subtle style. Thomas Eakins was among the leaders and major sources of inspiration.
The New Hope artists were led by Edward Redfield who encouraged independent voices and ideas within his group. Thanks to his support, Folinsbee thrived and cultivated his personal style.
While Folinsbee was known for his light color palette, he developed a different approach after a trip to France in 1926. Exposure to European Impressionism inspired him and he began employing darker colors and new methods. The thick brushstrokes convey both the passion of the artist and the rich hillsides and seascapes he captured.
Folinsbee painted for the love of art, not for the desire of recognition. He followed his own path throughout his career, unconcerned with changing trends. He developed a an adaptive style on his own terms.
George Grosz (1893 - 1959)
George Grosz was a German artist caught in the between war and the rise of the Nazi party. By using satire, Grosz expressed his politics and general pessimism towards modern society. Characters are twisted exaggerations and each scene is rich in iniquity.
While he is known now for his deeply political works, Grosz was not always political. Born to a lower middle class family in a small town in Pomerania, Grosz could often be found reading trashy novels, satire magazines rich in caricatures, and other escapist works. These would become the foundation of his style. Melodramatic gestures conveying simple truths, sensationalism, and realism fused together. Using this as his base, George Grosz created a unique and recognizable style.
In 1920, Grosz joined Hausmann and Heartfield in organizing an international Dada exhibition. The Dada-Messe exposed Berlin to the movement. This faire discredited the idea that art was patriotic and showed a number of procommunist and nihilist works.
As the Nazi regime came to power, America was a dream of escape. Before Hitler secured his dictatorship, Grosz fled and became an American citizen in 1933. Grosz died upon his return to Berlin in 1959.
Louis Marcoussis (1878 - 1941)
Sanford Robinson Gifford (1823 - 1880)
Henry Farny (1847 - 1916)
Henry Farny was born in 1847 in Alsace, France. His family fled to America in 1853 as political refugees. They moved to Warren, Pennsylvania where Farny first met Native Americans. This sparked a lifelong fascination with their people and culture.
Henry Farny was among the first artists to make a career of painting Plains Indians. Unlike some, Farny tended to favor a romantic realism rather than sensationalism or straight romance.
Farny made his way up the river and to Bismarck, North Dakota. Sitting Bull had surrendered himself to the American military and Farny had hoped to meet the famed leader and learn more about the Ghost Dance movement. During his visit, Henry Farny was able to sketch what he saw of the Ghost Dance and the Sioux Nation.
During Farny’s other trips out west, he would collect Native American artifacts. His collection grew so large and diverse that he was able to paint any subject he wanted without needing to step outside his studio. However, he continued to travel and met Native Americans.
While Farny presented his subjects in a slightly nostalgic light, he avoided the drama that other painters of this genre are known for. His light is dynamic, poses are natural, and there is a sense of documentary detail. Henry Farny truly wished to capture these cultures, down to the minor details.